CHAPTER 70 on Vocabulary

POIGNANT (Adj.)

Meaning- something causing a strong feeling of sadness

Mnemonic trick- The word poignant sounds similar to pregnant. Unwanted pregnancy causes a strong feeling of sadness among family. Therefore, poignant means something causing a strong feeling of sadness.

Synonym- EMOTIONAL, IMPACTFUL

Uses-

  • The prisoner painted a poignant picture of his sufferings.
  • The speaker painted a poignant picture of hunger in America.
  • Watching the tearful reunion of the long-separated mother and child, the social worker was touched by the poignant scene.
  • Salman khan’ s movie TERE NAAM was a poignant love story that ends in a tragedy.

 

POLYGLOT (Adj.)

Meaning- 1) person who knows several languages.

2) made up of people or things from different culture, countries etc.

Mnemonic trick- The word polyglot is made up of ‘poly’ and ‘glot’. Poly means many and glot comes from word gloss. Gloss means a brief explanation. We can remember the meaning of word gloss from word glossary. We know that glossary means a list of definitions. Polygloss means a person who can give definition in several languages. Therefore, polyglot means a person who can speak or who can give definitions in several languages.

Synonym- MULTILINGUAL

Uses-

  • A polyglot community made up of many cultures.
  • Growing up in a multilingual home, Mike’ s polyglot niece speaks and reads German, French and Spanish.
  • The polyglot staff-memo presented a variety of native tongues that were understood by the employees; including, Italian, English, and Portuguese.

 

POMPOUS (OR SUPERCILIOUS OR HAUGHTY) (Adj.)

Meaning- A reference to someone who behave in a very formal and serious way because they believe that they are better, smarter and more important than other people.

Synonym- IMPERIOUS, BUMPTIOUS

Uses-

  • Pompous professor thought that he was much too qualified to teach students who had such a minimal amount of intelligence.
  • Whenever the star sportsman appeared on TV, he had a pompous attitude which upset some viewers.
  • We usually believe that it is difficult to talk about achievements without sounding pompous.

                              

PRAGMATIC (Adj.)

Meaning- solving problems in a practical and sensible way rather than by having fixed ideas or theories.

Mnemonic trick- The word pragmatic contains word pragma. Pragma sounds similar to program. While making programs for holidays we follow practical approach or we never have fixed ideas or theories. Therefore, Pragmatic means solving problems or doing work in a practical and sensible way rather than by having fixed ideas or theories.

Synonym- PRACTICAL

Uses-

  • His pragmatic view of public education comes from years of his work in government schools.
  • In business, the pragmatic approach to problems is often more successful than idealistic ones.
  • Our new government should understand ground reality and should follow pragmatic approach to problems that our country is facing.

 

PRECARIOUS (Adj.)

Meaning- 1) something depending on will or pleasure of another or something dependent on uncertain process.

2) not safe or dangerous.

Mnemonic trick- The word precarious contains cari. Cari sounds similar to care. Something without care or something risk or full of danger is precarious. Precarious has second meaning also, something depend upon the pleasure of another or something dependent on uncertain process is precarious. Therefore, precarious means not safe, strong or steady.

Synonym- DANGEROUS

Uses-

  • The workers had precarious privileges provided by their company which could be altered or terminated at any time.
  • My cousin made a precarious living by gambling, hoping and believing that he would win the big jackpot at some time!
  • In city like New Delhi, walking on street with gold chain in neck is precarious.
  • Again she had allowed herself to be put in a precarious situation.
  • The slope dropped at a precarious angle, impossible to maneuver unsecured, only a few degrees from the perpendicular.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER 59 on Vocabulary

NEBULOUS (Adj.)

Meaning- 1) not clear or difficult to see or understand.

2) cloudy, misty; resembling a cloud

Mnemonic trick- The word nebulous sounds similar to nimboo. ‘nimboo paani’ is opaque or unclear. We can’ t see through nimboo paani. Therefore, nimboo paani means something not clear.

Synonym- AMBIGUOUS, VAGUE, INDISTINCT

Uses-

  • The facts behind a politician’ s statement are often nebulous.
  • The whole shadow appears like a nebulous circle projected in yellow.
  • After 20 years, she had only a nebulous memory of her grandmother’ s face.
  • Video made nebulous references to some major changes the future may hold.

 

NECROMANCY (Noun)

Meaning- 1) The practice of talking to the spirit of dead people.

2) Use of magic power especially for evil reasons.

Synonym- WITCHCRAFT, SORCERY

Uses-

  • The town accused her of necromancy.
  • Necromancy seemed to offer human beings a means of exerting some control over an uncertain world.

 

NEGATE (Verb)

Meaning- Deny or refute; make void or cause to be ineffective.

 

Uses-

  • Darling, if you add “I promise to try to work things out for at least a couple of weeks before giving up” to our wedding vows, it would kind of negate the part where you promise to love, honor and cherish me “until death do us apart.”
  • The debate coach reminded the students that they had to negate each one of their opponents’ major point in order to win.

                                     

NOSTALGIA (Noun)

Meaning- pleasure and sadness that is caused by remembering something from the past and wishing that you could experience it again or state of being homesick

Synonym- REMINISCENCE

Explanation- reminiscence means the act of remembering or telling about past experiences. Nostalgia focusses on pleasure and sadness caused by remembering something from the past. But, they are synonym.

Uses-

  • He is filled with nostalgia for his college days.
  • He was overcome with a wave of nostalgia whenever he thought of his boyhood years in Scotland.
  • His eyes were glassy in rapt nostalgia.
  • In nostalgia, Rahul said “I wish I were home”.

 

OBDURATE (OR STUBBORN OR OBSTINATE OR PERTINACIOUS OR MULISH) (Adj.)

Meaning- refusing to do what other people want, not willing to change your opinion or the way you do something.

Synonym- INFLEXIBLE, INTRACTABLE, UNALTERABLE

Explanation- words like obdurate, stubborn, obstinate, pertinacious or mulish are used for those people who refuses to do what other people want. For example, Obdurate stresses insensitivity while rejecting appeal for mercy <obdurate in rejecting his plea for clemency>. words like inflexible, intractable, unalterable stresses upon unalterable nature of people.

Uses-

  • My parents remain as obdurate as ever.
  • Trina’ s obdurate little girl refused to eat her vegetables at dinner.
  • Maria responded with an obdurate refusal to arrive for work on holiday.

 

 

 

CHAPTER 58 on Vocabulary

MISCEGENATION (Noun)

Meaning- sexual relations or marriage between people of two different races (Such as white person and a black person)

Mnemonic trick- This word is made up of two words mix and gene. Mixture of two different genes is called miscegenation. Therefore, miscegenation means sexual relations or marriage between people of two different races.

Uses-

  • Marriage between people of two different races is called miscegenation.
  • Mark was a child of miscegenation his mother was German and his father was African American and now he is a German citizen working as a construction engineer.

 

MODICUM (Noun)

Meaning- A little bit or limited quantity.

 

Uses-

  • In her first five years in Hollywood, she experienced only a modicum of success as an actress, appearing twice in commercials and once as a waitress on Desperate Housewives.

 

PLACATE (OR MOLLIFY) (Verb)

Meaning- to cause someone to feel less angry about something or to calm down

Synonym- APPEASE, ASSUAGE, CONCILIATE, PROPITIATE

Synonym explanation- mollify (or placate) means to cause someone to feel less angry about something or to calm down. Appease implies quieting demands by making concessions. For example:

1) appease their territorial ambitions.

2) They appeased the dictator by accepting his demands in an effort to avoid war.

Propitiate means to make someone please or to reduce the anger especially of a superior being. For example:

  • He made offerings to propitiate the angry gods.

Conciliate means to make someone less angry or to please someone by persuasion, concession, or settling of differences.

  • Company’ s attempt to conciliate the workers on strike have failed

Assuage means to make (something, such as an unpleasant feeling) less painful, severe etc.

Uses-

  • The board placated protestors by agreeing to consider their demands.
  • Outraged minority groups will not be placated by promises of future improvements.
  • Shopkeeper got failed in placating angry customers.

 

MORIBUND (Adj.)

Meaning- 1) (of an industry, an institution, a custom etc.) no longer active or effective or close to failure.

2) very sick or close to death.

Mnemonic trick-  The word moribund contains mori and bund. ‘MERI SAANS BAND’ or ‘I am dying’. Therefore, moribund means very sick or close to death.

Synonym- DYING

Uses-

  • Some people think that fidelity in marriage is moribund.
  • As Dr. Michael concluded his lecture, a woman rushed up to him. “Doctor,” she said, “I’ve wanted to shake your hand and thank you ever since you saved my life two years ago.” Doctor asked was it a ‘moribund’ case.
  • Nowadays number of new actors are coming and it is very difficult for old actors to revive their moribund career.
  • Pakistan is violating cease fire daily. Now Indian government have understood that all the peace talks with separatist and Pakistan are moribund.

 

MULCT (Verb)

Meaning- 1) To penalize by fining or demanding forfeiture.

2) To acquire by trickery or deception.

Uses-

  • Court imposed a mulct of an additional twenty percent on overdue payments.
  • He mulcted the gullible public of $100 million.
  • He mulcts. What can we do?
  • He was trying to mulct the insurance company for an accident that never happened.
  • The court mulcted the man for having lied about his car being stolen.
  • Sharda group was imputed of mulcting the public by making false promises of unusually large returns.
  • When the judge realized that the accused had mulcted the public, she was determined that he should be mulcted, including being sent to prison.

 

CHAPTER 55 on Vocabulary

LASSITUDE (Noun)

Meaning- Tiredness, weariness; lazy indifference

Uses-

  • It is so difficult to get anything done in the dead heat of august! I can’ t seem to shake my lassitude enough to get out of his hammock, much less study for the GRE.
  • Harry’s lassitude was caused by overworking on too many things in a short time.
  • Lassitude is a condition of extreme fatigue or lethargy.
  • Symptoms of Bert’s illness resulted in his being pale and having extreme lassitude.

 

LUCID (Adj.)

Meaning- 1) Clear to the mind or easily understood.

2) A person thinking clearly or a reference to an interval of sanity in a mental disorder.

3) Transparent

4) In poetry, bright, shinning

Mnemonic trick- The Word Lucid contains word ‘cid’. CID personnel thinks clearly and they make things clear and transparent to the user. Therefore, lucid means clear to the mind or (of a person) thinking clearly.

Synonym- LIMPID, PERSPICUOUS, PELLUCID

Uses-

  • You must write in a clear and lucid style.
  • He is able to recognize his wife in his lucid moments.
  • He wrote several other works of the same nature which exhibit scholarly research and lucid arrangement.
  • The wonders of the temple were made more lucid by a guided tour of the little museum.
  • The poet was reading lucid prose.
  • He wrote several other works of the same nature which exhibit scholarly research and lucid arrangement.

LUMINOUS (Adj.)

Meaning- 1) producing or seeming to produce light.

2) very bright in color or filled with light.

Mnemonic trick- Braggadocio contains word brag. Brag sounds similar to gab, gab means to talk a lot. Brag is slightly big word. Therefore, brag means big or boastful talks and braggadocio means empty boasting.

Synonym- GRANDILLOQUENCE, MAGNILOQUENCE, BOASTING, COCKALORUM, RODOMONTADE, FANFARONADE

Uses-

  • All his talk of winning wrestling match turned out to be so much braggadocio.
  • Just listen to his talks. His braggadocio may entertain his younger acquaintances, but it certainly becomes tiresome to his older friends.
  • Professional Boxer Vijendra singh was famous for his entertaining braggadocio prior to every match.

 

MACABRE (Adj.)

Meaning- pertaining to or suggesting death; hence causing horror and shocking

Mnemonic trick- The word macabre sounds similar to Hindi word makbara or tomb. Some of the makbaras of old historical monuments cause feeling of horror among people. Hence macabre means something horrible or shocking suggesting death.

Synonym- GRUESOME

Uses-

  • Macabre tales of war and plague in middle ages.
  • Macabre mystery.
  • The city morgue is a macabre spot.

 

MACHIAVELLIAN (Adj.)

Meaning- using clever and dishonest tricks in order to get or achieve something

Mnemonic trick- The word Machiavellian contains word machia and vellian. Vellia sounds similar to villain and machia sounds similar to machination. Villain always uses Machiavellian machination to do harm. Therefore, Machiavellian means clever and dishonest tricks in order to get or achieve something.

Synonym- UNSCRUPULOUS, UNETHICAL

Uses-

  • The Machiavellian moves of the crime syndicate are astounding.
  • Machiavellian conspiracy.
  • In his Machiavellian view, it is suggested that a prince should be concerned only with power and be bound only by the rules that would lead to success in political activities.
  • Chief minister Om Prakash Chautala was accused of using Machiavellian scheme for appointing primary teachers. He is now behind the bars for using Machiavellian scheme.
  • His Machiavellian machination make him the most feared and least trusted man in America.

 

CHAPTER 49 on Vocabulary

INCHOATE (OR INCEPTIVE) (Adj.)

Meaning- not fully formed or developed yet

Explanation- inchoate (or inceptive) means not completely developed and inception means beginning.

Synonym- INCEPTIVE, ABORNING, BUDDING

Uses-

  • Inchoate feelings of affection for a man whom she had, up till now, thought of as only a friend.
  • A vague inchoate idea in my mind.
  • Before the coming of life, the Earth was an inchoate

 

INCONSEQUENTIAL (Adj.)

Meaning- Unimportant.

Synonym- INSIGNIFICANT, TRIVIAL, UNIMPORTANT

Uses-

  • Leola made an effort to take her husband’ s mind off his troubles by talking about inconsequential things.
  • Since Brad’ s argument does n’ t make any sense, he is just contributing a bunch of inconsequential talk.
  • She was puzzled in group discussion and made only inconsequential points.

                

INCORRIGIBLE (Adj.)

Meaning- not able to be corrected or changed.

Uses-

  • Gamblers are incorrigible optimists.
  • Terrorists are incorrigible, inhumane person.

 

INCURSION (Noun)

Meaning- 1) A military invasion or a raid into enemy territory.

2) The action of going into a place without permission.

Synonym- FORAY, RAID, IRRUPTION, DESCENT

Uses-

  • The foreign government denied that its soldier had made an incursion across the international border.
  • Our navy was too weak to stop the incursion of rebel forces.
  • Surgical strike does not mean only an act of incursion into enemy’ s territory.

 

INDEFATIGABLE (OR TIRELESS) (Adj.)

Meaning- able to work or continue for a longtime without becoming tired.

Synonym- DILIGENCE, ASSIDUOUS, LABORIOUS, INDUSTRIOUS

Uses-

  • He had courage, a vivid sense of duty and an indefatigable love for work.
  • He was indefatigable in four years of his editorship in contributing on a great variety of subjects.
  • He has been an indefatigable advocate for reform.

 

 

CHAPTER 43 on Vocabulary

FOSTER (Adj.)

 First Meaning-  to encourage or to promote something

Uses-

  • Unhygienic conditions in your neighborhood can foster the spread of various viral disease.
  • The task of an English teacher is to foster non-native speaker, to always speak in English.
  • Richa told her husband, “you bake really well, if you foster your hobby, you are certain to run a successful bakery”.
  • Smith has fostered many homeless children and provided for their education.
  • The UNO aims to foster good relations among various countries of the world.

Second Meaning-looking after someone else’ s child without legal adoption. For example- foster parents, foster home etc.

Mnemonic trick- It’s a bitter truth that people who look after parent less children offer foster bear and other bad eatables to them. Therefore, foster means parents who look after children without legal adoption.

Uses-

  • He has gone from one foster parents to another.
  • Every foster home got rid of me.

                                  

FRACTIOUS (Adj.)

Meaning- Unruly, troublemaking; irritable.

Uses-

  • The students for progressive action were a fractious bunch, always fighting with one another over exactly which progressive action should take priority.

 

PEEVISH (OR PETTISH OR PETULANT OR FRETFUL) (Adj.)       

Meaning- showing irritation or shows people who often get annoyed

Synonym- CROTCHETY, IRASCIBLE, SNAPPISH

Uses-

  • I would rather figure things out on my own than ask my peevish boss for help.
  • Aubrey had slept little and that always made him peevish.
  • She glared down at me with peevish expression on her face.
  • Peevish patient’ s in the doctor’ s waiting room.

 

FRIVOLOUS (Adj.)

Meaning- Not serious in content or attitude or behavior.

Mnemonic trick- The word frivolous contains word ‘fri’. ‘fri’ sounds similar to free. If anyone talking about giving something free to us. It means that he is talking frivolously. Therefore, frivolous means not serious in content or attitude or behavior.

Synonym- FLIPPANT, FLIGHTY, NONSENSICAL

Uses-

  • Frivolous comments.
  • Amar bought something frivolous just to satisfy his ego.
  • I kept wondering why my ex-girlfriend would marry such a frivolous guy.

                      

FRUGAL (OR THRIFTY) (Adj.)

Meaning- 1) having prudence in avoiding waste.

2) people who find ways of making things useful that others just throw away.

Mnemonic trick- The word frugal contains word ‘frug’. ‘frug’ sounds similar to frog. Poor tribal people started eating frogs and rats instead of good quality chicken for saving their money. Poor tribal people are frugal. Therefore, frugal means careful about spending money.

Synonym- PARSIMONIOUS, STINGY, SKINFLINT

Antonym- PROFLIGATE, PRODIGAL, UNTHRIFTY, WASTEFUL

Uses-

  • By being frugal, the family is able to stretch its monthly budget.
  • Frugal people try to avoid wasting things by reusing items that most people throw away, their frugalities save their money.
  • Frugal people sell their old mobile instead of throwing away; so, frugality is an unwillingness to waste things.
  • If you are frugal, you can find ways to decorate your room stylishly yet inexpensively.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER 36 on Vocabulary

ENSCONCE (Verb)

Meaning- 1) to firmly place or settle something.

2) to hide something

Mnemonic trick- The word ensconce contains word conce. Conce sounds similar to Kansh. Kansh mama was famous character in mythological serials. Due to fear of Lord Krishna Kansh mama ensconced himself under the table.

Synonym- INSTALL, LODGE, SETTLE

Uses-

  • After dinner, I ensconced myself on a chair with a book.
  • Their children are ensconced comfortably in the private school. Now, they have decided to leave the city.
  • He ensconced himself in front of television.
  • Manisha ensconced her cellphone in her inside-zippered pocket so no one could think of stealing it.
  • Shina ensconced himself in the next room to listen the conversation that was going on out in the hall.

 

ENTICE (Verb)

Meaning- to attract someone especially by offering or showing something attractive.

Mnemonic trick- The word entice sounds similar to enticer. Anyone can entice youngsters by promising them to give enticer bike. Therefore, entice means to attract someone especially by offering something attractive.

Synonym- SEDUCE, ALLURE, BEGUILE, SOLICIT

Uses-

  • Retailers have tried everything to entice customers.
  • The club has come up with an attractive membership pack to entice new members.
  • “I keep trying toentice you, but you seem immune to me,” he teased.
  • Mike is a rich man. I must entice him to marry my daughter and lend me forty thousand dollars that I need.

               

ENUMERATE (OR NUMERATE) (Verb)

Meaning- 1) to name things separately or one by one.

2) to specify individually.

Mnemonic trick- The word enumerate contains word ‘numer’. ‘numer’ sounds similar to number. We use word enumerate when we specify something number wise. Therefore, enumerate means to name things separately or one by one.

Synonym- LIST, RECITE

Uses-

  • She enumerated all the obstacles that she had encountered.
  • I am enumerating all the tasks that I will have to complete by the end of this month.
  • John hung his head in shame as his teacher enumerated his many flaws.
  • The journalist enumerated all the flaws of the politician.
  • Brad enumerated his reasons for working on the project.

                

EPHEMERAL (OR EVANESCENT) (Adj.)

 Meaning- 1) lasting for only a short period of time.

2) living or lasting only for a day, as certain plants or insects do.

Mnemonic trick- The word ephemeral sounds similar to phenomenal. Phenomenal means something very good or great. Phenomenal days are always ephemeral. Therefore, ephemeral

Synonym- TRANSIENT, FUGITIVE, TEMPORARY

Uses-

  • Fame in the world of rock and pop is largely ephemeral.
  • There are number of ephemeral organisms that grow, reproduce and die within a few hours or a day.
  • Rahul was chosen as the top salesperson this morning; however, his ephemeral honor ended because his manager realized that Sheena had exceeded his sales record.
  • Eisha put flowers from her garden into a vase and they were an ephemeral bouquet because she forgot to put water into the container as a result of being distracted by an unexpected visitor.

 

EPICURE (Noun)

Meaning- A person who appreciates fine food and drink.

Mnemonic trick- The word epicure contains word ‘epic’ and ‘picu’. ‘picu’ sounds similar to ‘petu’. Epic means grand or legendary and Hindi word ‘petu’ gives reference to person who eats a lot. Epicure lives grand life style and eats healthy food. Therefore, epicure means a person who appreciates fine food and drink.

Synonym- GOURMET, GORMAND, GASTRONOME, BON VIVANT

Synonym explanation- epicure gives reference to person having sensitive and discriminating tastes especially in food or wine. Gourmet (or gourmand) means a person who enjoys and knows a lot about good food and wine. Gastronome gives reference to person who is a lover of food and who has interest in cooking. Bon vivant gives reference to person who likes going to parties and other social occasions and who enjoys good food, wine, etc.

Uses-

  • He is one of the America’ s first great epicures.
  • A epicure restaurant (restaurant that has high quality food)

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER 24 on Vocabulary

DEBACLE (Noun)

Meaning- 1) A great disaster.

2) complete failure.

Mnemonic trick- The word debacle contains word bac. Bac sounds similar to back. If we get back or reappear or supplementary in our semester exam. It is a complete debacle of our semester’ s result.

Synonym- FIASCO, CALAMITY, CATASTROPHE

Uses-

  • The result of 2015 Delhi assembly elections was a total debacle for the ruling Bhartiya Janta party who lost completely.
  • The opposition is viewing demonetization as a debacle for the Indian economy.
  • After the debacle of the author’ s first novel, he had difficulty getting another publisher to consider printing his next fictional story.
  • It makes me wonder that she has not learned anything from his debacle.

                                     

DEBAUCH(Verb)

Meaning- 1) to participate or to behave in corrupt and unacceptable activities.

2) to cause a change in value or quality of something.

Mnemonic trick- The word debauch contains word bauch. Bauch sounds similar to watch. If we do not watch or take care of our children, he will debauch or he will start behaving in corrupt and unacceptable activity. Therefore, debauch means to participate in corrupt and unacceptable activities.

Synonym- DEBASE, PERVERT, DEPRAVE

Explanation- Debase implies a loss of position, worth, value or dignity. Deprave is used when something has made evil or morally bad or corrupting influence on someone. Pervert means to cause to turn away from what is good or morally right. Debauched (Adj.) means weakened or destroyed by bad sexual behavior.

Uses-

  • The scandal sheets are full of stories of efforts to debauch young people by some adults.
  • The nefarious old man attempted to debauch his nephew by encouraging him to commit illegal activities.
  • He debauched the delicate painting by splashing green paint all over it.

 

DEBILITATE (OR ENFEEBLE) (Verb)

Meaning- to make (someone or something) weak.

Synonym- WEAKEN, DEVITALIZE, ENERVATE, ENFEEBLE, ETIOLATE

Uses-

  • Sharon was debilitated by the excessively hot weather and so she felt abnormally tired and incapacitated mentally and physically.
  • One financial set back after another one can debilitate a company’s prospects for continuing to stay in business.
  • The long period of being confined to a hospital bed will enfeeble anyone.
  • He was debilitated by infection.
  • Hectic schedule in office and his poor health completely debilitated him.

 

 

DEBONAIR (Adj.)

Meaning- 1) dressing and acting in an appealing and sophisticated way.

2) fashionable, attractive and confident.

Mnemonic trick- 1) After reading DEBONAIR magazine and after watching debonair ladies in Debonair magazine. You will start wearing fashionable clothes and be a debonair to impress debonair ladies.

2) The word debonair contains word DEBO. Debojit (Deboo Da) is debonair of west Bengal. Therefore, debonair means Dashing.

Synonym- JAUNTY, SUAVE, ELEGANT, REFINED, URBANE, CULTURED, REFINED

Uses-

  • A debonair man in black suit and top hat.
  • His success in reality show made him debonair of London.
  • This man could be described as debonair.

 

DECIMATE (OR EXTERMINATE) (Verb)

Meaning- to kill a large number of plants, animals, people etc. or to severely damage a large part of something.

Mnemonic trick- The word decimate sounds similar to Hindi word desi maid. Desi maid decimated his all the family members for money. Therefore, decimate means to kill a large number of plants, animals, people etc. or to severely damage large part of something.

Synonym- ANNIHILATE, DEMOLISH, DESTROY

Meaning explanation- Annihilate implies complete destruction of something and decimate means to kill a large number of plants, animals, people or to severely damage a large part of something. Demolish means to destroy (a building, bridge etc.) so that it cannot be repaired.

Uses-

  • If we do not get rain soon, it will decimate the farm crops in this area.
  • Demonetization has decimated the small business in rural areas.
  • The government’s budget cuts will decimate public services in many small towns.
  • The invaders in the eighteenth century decimated thousands of native people of our country.

 

1  ……………………………………………………………………………. 23 24 25 ……………………….. 30

 

 

CHAPTER 22 on Vocabulary

CORROBORATE (Verb)

Meaning- to add proof or certainty to an account, statement, idea etc. or to support something.

Mnemonic trick- The word corroborate sounds similar to collaborate. If we Collaborate with someone, we definitely corroborate or support him. Therefore, corroborate means to support someone or something.

Synonym- SUPPORT, AUTHENTICATE, ATTEST

Uses-

  • Recent research seems to corroborate this theory.
  • I had access to a wide range of documents which corroborated the story.
  • The committee continued to collaborate on their research; in fact, their most recent findings seemed to corroborate their earlier conclusion.

 

COUNTENANCE (Noun)

FIRST Meaning- the appearance or expression of someone’s face.

Mnemonic trick- COUNT is in the word countenance. The countenance of people is different while counting money. Therefore, countenance means facial expression.

Uses-

  • He was of noble countenance.

SECOND Meaning- To support something or to agree to something happening.

Antonym- DISCOUNTENANCE

Uses-

  • The committee refused to countenance his proposals.

                                    

CRASS (Noun)

Meaning- stupid in a grossly inconsiderate way or stupid without carrying for other people

Mnemonic trick- crass is similar to word class. In school kids make crass complaints of fellow students to the teacher. They pass crass comments in class. Therefore, crass means coarse and stupid or stupid in a grossly inconsiderate way.

Synonym- GROSS, INSENSIBLE

Uses-

  • Don’ t use sadness as an excuse for crass behavior.
  • He is free from crass superstition.
  • His crassness makes it impossible for him to be accepted by refined people.
  • Crass misrepresentation of the facts was done by him.
  • Such crass materialism will never lead to real happiness.

                     

CREDULOUS (OR GULLIBLE) (Adj.)

Meaning- easily fooled or quick to believe something that is not true

Synonym- TRUSTING, UNWARY

Antonym- INCREDULOUS

Uses-

  • Children are not gullible these days.
  • I am not gullible enough to believe something that is outrageous.
  • There is a gullible side to Indian people. They can be easily misled. Religion is the best device used to mislead them.

                             

CRESCENDO (Noun)

Meaning- 1) A gradual increase in loudness of a sound or gradual increase in volume or intensity of something.

2) The highest or loudest point of something that increases gradually.

Mnemonic trick- The word crescendo contains word ‘cres’ and ‘scend’. ‘cres’ sounds similar to crest and ‘scend’ sounds similar to sound. The crest of the sound wave contains point at which intensity of sound is highest. Therefore, crescendo means highest or loudest point of something that increases gradually.

Synonym- ACME, APEX, APOGEE, CLIMAX, ZENITH, PINNACLE, SUMMIT

Uses-

  • The musicians were following the directions of leader to begin the crescendo of the musical performance.
  • Their divorce was merely the formal crescendo of a long period of marital stress and quarreling.
  • The excitement of the audience reached its crescendo when the singer came on stage.
  • Complaints about the corruption and other economic conditions have reached such a crescendo that it is very difficult for the current political party to be re-elected.

 

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CHAPTER 18 on Vocabulary

CONTEMPLATE (OR PONDER OR COGITATE OR CEREBRATE) (Verb)

Meaning- action of thinking or looking at something attentively

Uses-

  • Roy is contemplating retirement next year as he has not been keeping well for a long time.
  • When Smith was contemplating a new business, he consulted competent finance, legal and tax advisors to ensure the viability of his venture.
  • Have you ever contemplated something for a long time?
  • By the time he finishes contemplating what to do with his life, it will be almost over.

 

COGNIZANT (Adj.)

Meaning- aware of something.

Mnemonic trick- Global company COGNIZANT always takes cognisance of what’ s happening in the world. Therefore, cognizant means aware of something.

Synonym- CONSCIOUS, AWARE, MINDFUL

Antonym- OBLIVIOUS, INCOGNIZANT, STUPOR, UNAWARE

Uses-

  • Hank was cognizant of the difficulty in completing the assignment he gave to his workers.
  • He is cognizant of his responsibilities as a Bureaucrat.

              

PULCHRITUDE (OR COMELINESS) (Noun)

Meaning- beauty, especially a woman’ s beauty

Explanation- comeliness (Adj.) means beautiful. Comely means beauty.

Synonym- BEAUTIFULNESS

Uses-

  • Erin’ s pulchritude was legendary bringing admires from near and end.
  • She is proud of her pulchritude.
  • I do not envy the judges who have to select this year’ s Miss India from this collection of female pulchritude.

 

                         

COMMENSURATE

Meaning-  Equal in size or degree or extent.

Synonym- PROPORTIONATE

Uses-

  • Pay should be commensurate with the time worked.
  • Each investor will receive a proportionate share of the profits.

 

                

COMPLACENT AND COMPLAISANT

COMPLACENT (Adj.)

Meaning- Satisfied with how things are and not wanting to change them

Mnemonic trick- We, engineering students get complacent or self-satisfied after getting placement. Therefore, complacent means smugly self-satisfied.

Synonym- INSOUCIANT, SMUG, NONCHALANT

Uses-

  • The government can’ t afford to be complacent over problems like illiteracy, unemployment.
  • The expression on Michael’ s face was complacent reflecting his lack of concern for the situation.

COMPLAISANT(Adj.)

Meaning- willing to please others or easily convinced to do what other people want

Uses-

  • As a civil servant, I was always complaisant to everyone.
  • Amitabh Bachchan, as represented in the movies, is always complaisant to his fans.

Therefore, Complaisant means ready to please others and a complacent person is pleased with himself.

For example-

As a complaisant person, I motivated Michael to work hard and prepare for competitive exams after getting placement. But, Michael was complacent.

 

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