CHAPTER 94 on Vocabulary

SOPORIFIC (OR SOMNIFEROUS) (Adj.)

Meaning- causing a person to become tired and ready to fall asleep

Mnemonic trick- The word soporific contains word so. Hindi word ‘so’ means sleep. Therefore, soporific means something that causes a person to become tired and ready to fall asleep.

Synonym- SLUMBEROUS, DROWSY,

Uses-

  • The soporific heat of summer.
  • This medication is soporific, so do not drive after taking it.
  • Some people find a glass of wine to be a soporific addition to night meal.
  • The politician’ s soporific speech put many of those in the auditorium to sleep.
  • My mother complained that the soporific weather was making her feel sluggish and apathetic.
  • The police told reuters they had no information about the possible use of soporific gas in the air conditioning system.

 

SORDID (Adj.)

Meaning- 1) immoral or dishonest.

2) very dirty

Mnemonic trick- The word sordid contains word sor and did. Sor sounds similar to sorry. After doing sordid thing they did not even say sorry. It shows how sordid they are. Therefore, sordid means immoral or dishonest or very dirty.

Synonym- BEFOULED, ABJECT

Uses-

  • He managed to rise above the sordid streets upon which he grew up.
  • A sordid affair involving bribery and corruption in high places.
  • The head of the gang operated a sordid entertainment complex where he encouraged people to gamble and lose their money and reputations.
  • Despite growing up in a sordid and poor neighborhood, the young woman went to school and became a teacher.
  • The evil man used sordid methods to entice new immigrants to work for him; unfortunately, he exploited or took advantage of them.
  • The public often displays a morbid curiosity about the sordid facts of life in the slums as described by socially conscious authors; such as, Charles Dickens.

 

SPECIOUS (Adj.)

Meaning- falsely appearing to be true but actually false

Mnemonic trick- The word specious sounds similar to spices. Cook in restaurant always gives specious excuses for making spicy food. Specious excuses means false excuses. Therefore, specious means falsely appearing to be true but actually false.

Synonym- DECEITFUL, DECEIVING

Uses-

  • That is the most ridiculous and specious argument I have ever herd.
  • Specious arguments of a demagogue.
  • This is a specious argument, but possibly you may get a number of unthinking people to believe it.
  • It was obvious that he was making a specious excuse.
  • This argument is rather specious than sound.
  • The park provided a spacious playground for children. The mayor presented specious economic reasons as to why it should be closed.
  • You may create an inspirational and visually resplendent strategy map but without accountability its value is specious.

                             

SQUABBLE (Verb)

Meaning- to argue noisily about something that is not very important.

Mnemonic trick- The word squabble is made up of combination of two words ‘squirrel’ and ‘babble’. If two squirrels are babbling too much, it means that they are squabbling.

Synonym- ALTERCATION, IMBROGLIO, QUARREL

Synonym explanation- Altercation means noisy heated angry dispute. For examples: She got into several altercations with the coach this season. Squabble stresses childish and unseemly dispute over petty matters, but it need not imply bitterness or anger. Quarrel means heated verbal contention which may destroy relationship.

Uses-

  • My sisters were squabbling over what to watch on television.
  • They were squabbling over who would pay for the lunch this time.

 

STEADFAST (Adj.)

Meaning- 1) very devoted or loyal to a person, belief or cause.

2) not changing or immovable.

Mnemonic trick- The word steadfast contains word stead. Stead sounds similar to steady. Steady means fixed or not changing. Therefore, steadfast means something not changing or one who has immovable devotion or loyalty.

Synonym- FAITHFUL, STAUNCH

Uses-

  • He was a steadfast supporter of separatist in Kashmir.
  • Steadfast friend or steadfast loyalty.
  • Carol was a steadfast student at the university despite the fact that she had to work at a restaurant several hours each day in order to pay for her tuition and other living expenses.

 

 

 

CHAPTER 93 on Vocabulary

SINISTER (Adj.)

Meaning- 1) Threatening or suggesting malevolence, menace, evil, or harm.

2) looking likely to cause something bad, harmful or dangerous.

Mnemonic trick- The word sinister comes from word sin. Therefore, it suggests malevolence, menace, evil or harm.

Synonym- MENACING, MINATORY, BALEFUL, INAUSPICIOUS, PORTENTOUS, OMINOUS

Uses-

  • There was something sinister about him.
  • The movie relies too much on sinister background music to create the suspense that script surely lacks.
  • We must defend the sinister forces that seek our downfall.
  • There might be a more sinister motive behind your enemy’ s actions.

 

SKULDUGGERY (Noun)

Meaning- secret or dishonest behavior or activity.

Mnemonic trick- The word skullduggery contains word skul and ggery. Skul sounds similar to Hindi word ‘sakal’ and ggery sounds similar to girre. ‘sakal si girre hue log hi karte hain skulduggery’. Therefore, skullduggery means secret or dishonest behavior or activity.

Synonym- CHICANERY, SUBTERFUGE

Uses-

  • Tales of espionage and skullduggery.
  • The investigation by CAG turned up new instances of skullduggery.
  • Political leader was accused of her involvement in skullduggery.
  • The company went bankrupt; it was the result of accounting skullduggery by corrupt officers.

                    

SLIPSHOD (OR SLAPDASH) (Adj.)

Meaning- (especially of a piece of work) done in a hurried and careless way.

Mnemonic trick- The word slapdash contains word slap and word slipshod contains word slip. If anyone does slapdash work, he will get tight slap or if anyone does slipshod work, he will slip at his door. Therefore, slipshod or slapdash means something done in a hurried and careless way.

Synonym- CARELESS, SLOVENLY, SHABBY

Uses-

  • He gets his work done quickly, but he is very slipshod.
  • She complained that the solicitor work had been slipshod.
  • Having witnessed the slipshod management here, it is not surprising the programmes they run result in little success.
  • As a student, I prided myself on never doing slipshod work.

 

SLUGGARD (Noun)

Meaning- habitually lazy person.

Mnemonic trick- The word sluggard contains word slugg. We can remember the meaning of word sluggard by remembering the meaning of word sluggish. Sluggish means moving lazily or lazy. Therefore, sluggard means a person who is sluggish.

Synonym- INDOLENT PERSON, LAZYBONES, COUCH POTATO

Uses-

  • “you are sluggard, a parasite” the angry father shouted at his lazy son.
  • He tried to wake up the sluggards who were still sleeping at that late hour.
  • My friend tends to avoid exercise, overeats and spends too much time as a sluggard in the front of the TV or playing electronic games hour after hour on his computer.
  • I will choose a sluggard to do a difficult job. Because he will find an easy way to do it.

 

SMOTHER (Verb)

First Meaning- to kill somebody by covering their face so that they cannot breathe.

Mnemonic trick- The word smother contains word mother. In anger mother tried to smother her husband. Therefore, smother means to kill someone by covering their face so that breathing is not possible.

Uses-

  • He smothered the baby with a pillow.

SMOTHER (Verb)

Second Meaning- 1) to cover somebody/something with too much of something.

2) to try to keep something from happening.

Uses-

  • A rich dessert smothered in cream.
  • She smothered him with kisses.
  • She smothered the fire with a blanket.

 

 

CHAPTER 92 on Vocabulary

SHARD (Noun)

Meaning- a piece of broken glass, cup, container etc. especially one found in an archaeological dig.

Mnemonic trick- The word shard contains word hard. Hard glass breaks into shards. Therefore, shard means piece of broken glass, cup, container etc.

Uses-

  • By carefully examining shards collected from an archaeological dig, we got information about early civilization.
  • Shards of glass have been cemented into the top of the wall to stop people climbing over.
  • A shard of hope that still pervades me.

 

SHEAR (Verb)

Meaning- 1) to cut the hair, wool etc. off an animal.

2) to cut off a person’ s hair or to cut off something.

Mnemonic trick- The word shear contains word hear. Hear sounds similar to hair. We normally cut off long hairs of our body. Therefore, shear means to cut off hair, wool etc. off an animal or a person. There is a confusing word sheer. Sheer is a cutting instrument usually similar but larger than a pair of scissors that is usually referred to in the plural.

Synonym- SHAVE, TRIM

Uses-

  • The farmer taught her how to shear sheep.
  • The gardener sheared the lawn.
  • It needs concentration to learn to shear sheep so the sheerer does not nick them.
  • He bought a new pair of shears so I could shear the lawn and bushes.

 

SHIRK (Verb)

Meaning- to avoid doing something that you are supposed to do because of laziness.

Mnemonic trick- The word shirk sounds similar to shark. If you shirk from doing your duty, Shark will eat you. Therefore, shirk means to avoid doing something that you are supposed to do because of laziness.

Uses-

  • He is too scrupulous to shirk his duty.
  • A general feeling of indolence forces him to shirk his work.
  • I shall not shirk from my obligations.
  • She never shirked from her responsibilities.
  • For getting promotion, you must do your work without shirking.

 

SIDEREAL (Adj.)

Meaning- of relating to, or expressed in relation to stars. For example: sidereal time is the time that is measured by the stars rather than by the sun. Sidereal period is the time required for a celestial body in the solar system to complete one revolution with respect to the fixed stars.

Mnemonic trick- mency in word clemency sounds like mercy. Clemency means mercy or kindness shown to somebody when they are being punished.

Uses-

  • The telescope has relayed extraordinary images of distant sidereal bodies.
  • Of these the more noteworthy dealt with the distribution of stars, star clusters and nebulae, and the construction of the sidereal universe.

 

SINECURE (Noun)

Meaning- a position/office/job that requires little or no work but provides a salary.

Mnemonic trick- The word sinecure contains word sine and cure. Sine sounds similar to sign and cure sounds similar to karo. ‘SIGN KARO ORR SALARY LOO’. Therefore, sinecure means a job or position in which someone is paid to do little or no work.

Uses-

  • She found him an exalted sinecure as a fellow of the library of congress.
  • Sharon worked for a hotel where she was a sinecure who occasionally took reservations for guests to stay.
  • He was transferred to the sinecure office, but held it only till November.

 

CHAPTER 91 on Vocabulary

SEMINARY (Noun)

Meaning- 1) a school especially a theological school for the training of priests, ministers etc.

2) a place or environment in which something is developed.

Mnemonic trick- The word seminary contains word seminar. We attend seminars in seminary. Therefore, seminary means a school especially a theological school for the training of priests, ministers etc.

Synonym- THEOLOGICAL COLLEGE, ACADEMY

Uses-

  • Jack was trained at the roman catholic seminary.
  • The patrol arrested five more Russian suspects: a small shopkeeper, three seminary students and a peasant.
  • Michael remained a member of the union seminary faculty but left the protestant Episcopal.

 

SENTENTIOUS (Adj.)

Meaning- trying to sound important or intelligent, especially by expressing moral judgements.

Mnemonic trick- The word sententious sounds similar to sentence. Sententious person is one who speaks sententious sentences. Therefore, sententious means trying to sound important or intelligent especially by expressing moral judgement.

Synonym- SERMONIC, HOMILETIC, EPIGRAMMATIC, MORALISTIC

Synonym explanation- sententious means trying to sound important by expressing what people should and should not do. Sermonic (or homiletic) means trying to sound important by giving lectures on moral and religious matters. Epigrammatic means short and clever speech.

Uses-

  • The document was sententious and pompous.
  • If we ask an artist about his art, we invariably get a grandiose mission statement, peppered with sententious remarks about ‘Tradition, innovation, vision and spirit’.
  • If you want to get success in politics, your style of speaking should be sententious.

                    

SENTINEL (OR SENTRY) (Noun)

Meaning- A soldier whose job is to guard something.

Mnemonic trick- The word sentinel sounds similar to sentimental. Sentimental means having or expressing strong feeling of love, sadness etc. in a way that seems excessive. If you are too sentimental for your belongings, keep a sentinel to guard them. Therefore, sentinel means a soldier whose job is to guard something.

Synonym- CUSTODIAN, GUARD, WATCHMAN

Uses-

  • Large dark pines stood like sentinels guarding the wintery garden.
  • The black figure of a sentinel stood on the bridge.
  • On the road, he was stopped by a French sentinel who ordered him back.
  • A tall round tower standing sentinel over the river.

 

SERPENTINE (OR SINUOUS) (Adj.)

Meaning- 1) twisting and bending like a snake.

2) complicated and difficult to understand.

Mnemonic trick- The word serpentine contains word serp. Hindi word serp means snake. Snakes makes twisting and bending movement. Therefore, serpentine means twisting and bending movements like a snake.

Synonym- CURVED, TWISTED

Uses-

  • The film’ s serpentine plot was difficult to follow.
  • The tourists were following the serpentine route of the river.
  • People were amazed at the serpentine movements of the dancers on the dance floor.
  • The politician’s explanations were even more serpentine than usual; that is, more complicated and difficult to follow.

 

SEVER (Verb) AND SEVERE (Adj.)

SEVER (Verb)

Meaning- 1) to cut, to separate or to divide.

2) to end (a relationship, a connection).

Mnemonic trick- Sever is also a famous band. Sever band will mesmerize you and sever all your connections with the world for some moments. Therefore, sever means to cut, to separate or to divide.

Synonym- CUT, SEPARATE, DISSEVER

Uses-

  • After an argument, my brother decided to sever all communication with his former boss.
  • His finger was severed in the accident.
  • Government is asking separatists to sever all relations with Pakistan.

SEVERE (Adj.)

Meaning- 1) very bad, unpleasant, harsh or causing discomfort.

2) strict in judgement or maintaining a conscientious standard for behavior.

Synonym- AUSTERE, RIGOROUS, HARD, STRICT

Uses-

  • A winter in Northern Canada can be severe if anyone is not prepared for it.
  • I thought that her expectations of the children’ s behavior were severe considering their ages.
  • He was his own most severe critic when talking about his new book.
  • She thought it was a rather severe decision on the part of her aunt to sever all connections with her former colleagues when she retired.

 

 

CHAPTER 90 on Vocabulary

SCURRILOUS (OR SLANDEROUS) (Adj.)

Meaning- expressing unfair or false criticism which is likely to damage someone’ s reputation

Synonym- CONTUMELIOUS, OPPROBRIOUS

Synonym explanation- Scurrilous (or slanderous) means generally false statements which are intended to damage someone’ s reputation. Opprobrious means statements which are intended to criticize someone or something. For example: media made opprobrious statements about immoral behavior of opposition. Opprobrious is also used for people deserving criticism or disapproval. For example: Adam’ s opprobrious co-worker in the sales department was fired. Contumelious means insolently abusive and humiliating. For example: Sam made contumelious remarks to the police officer when he  was stopped for driving too fast in the town.

Uses-

  • Angry truck drivers frequently use scurrilous language.
  • Scurrilous attacks on the senator.
  • He wrote a scurrilous piece about me in the local press.

 

SCURRY (Verb)

Meaning- to move quickly with small short steps

Mnemonic trick- The word scurry contains word curry. While eating if curry gets finished we scurry to kitchen for getting curry. Therefore, scurry means to move quickly with small short steps.

Synonym- SCAMPER

Uses-

  • The mouse scurried across the floor.
  • She said good-bye and scurried back to work.
  • Ants scurried around the pile of rotting food.

 

SECESSION (Noun)

Meaning- 1) The act of separating from a nation or state and becoming independent.

2) formal withdrawal from an organization.

Mnemonic trick- The word secession came from word secede. Secede means to separate from a nation. Therefore, secession means the act of separating from a nation or state and becoming independent.

2) The word secession sounds similar to scissor. We use scissor to cut or separate something. Therefore, scissor means the act of separating from a nation or state.

Synonym- SEPARATE

Uses-

  • The Ukraine’ s secession from Soviet Union.
  • Putin got succeeded in doing Crimea’ s secession from Ukraine.
  • Janet had to write a formal statement to ensure that her secession as a member of the political party was confirmed.

 

SECLUDE (Verb)

Meaning-  to keep yourself/somebody away from contact with other people.

Mnemonic trick- The word seclude sounds similar to word include. Seclude is almost opposite of the word include. Seclude means to keep yourself away from the contact with other people.

Synonym- ISOLATE, SEPARATE, KEEP AWAY

Uses-

  • The monks secluded themselves from rest of the society.
  • Harry secluded himself and only sees his mother once in a while.
  • Jerome secluded a home deep in the forest where nobody ever goes and lives as a hermit who has no contact with other individuals.

                          

SEDITION (Noun)

Meaning- the use of words or actions that are intended to encourage people to oppose a government or disrespect of republic.

Mnemonic trick- The word sedition contains word edition. The new edition of the book contains seditious material that is intended to disrespect of republic. Therefore, sedition means disrespect of republic or use of words or actions that are intended to encourage people to oppose a government.

Synonym- INSURRECTION, REBELLION

Uses-

  • The leaders of the group have been arrested and charged with sedition.
  • Hardik Patel was arrested and charged withsedition because he wrote something that urged people to rebel against the political leadership of their country.
  • During left’ s tenure sedition and profligacy were rampant.
  • He hurried back to Kashmir to trample on the seeds of sedition sown by separatists.
  • When Theseus returned to Athens he found that a sedition had been stirred up.

 

 

CHAPTER 89 on Vocabulary

SAVANT (Noun)

Meaning- 1) Learned person, scholar, someone admitted to membership in a scholarly field.

2) A person who does not have normal intelligence but who has very unusual mental abilities that other people do not have.

Uses-

  • The TED conferences feature savants and newsmakers speaking on topics of great importance to the world.

    

SAVOR (Noun & Verb) AND SAVIOR (Noun)

SAVOR (Verb)

Meaning- 1) to enjoy full taste of something, especially by eating or drinking it slowly.

2) to enjoy a feeling or an experience thoroughly.

Synonym- TASTE

Uses-

  • I want to savor this moment.
  • Now, she wanted to savor some memories.

SAVOR (Noun)

Meaning- A very good taste or smell of something.

Mnemonic trick- The word savor sounds similar to flavor. Therefore, savor(noun) means a very good taste or smell of something.

Synonym- FLAVOR

Uses-

  • The savor of soup was a blend of tomato and herbs.
  • A connoisseur who can identify the ingredients in any dish solely by their savor.

SAVIOR (Noun)

Meaning- Someone who saves something or someone from danger, harm, failure mainly used by Christian to refer to Jesus Christ.

Mnemonic trick- The word savior sounds similar to savi. Savi sounds similar to save. Savior is someone who saves something or someone from danger, harm, failure etc.

Synonym- SAVER, RESCUER, REDEEMER

Uses-

  • Bina felt that her psychologist had been her savior after her counselling sessions were completed.
  • There were many who expected the politician to be the savior of his political party.
  • Marian said that Alfred will be her savior if he will just savor this soup she is making and tell her what he thinks.

 

SCAFFOLD (Noun)

Meaning- 1) temporary or movable platform on which a person stands or sits while working high above the floor or ground.

2) a platform from which criminals are executed.

Mnemonic trick- The word scaffold contains word scaff. He folded his scaff and used it to hang himself on scaffold. Therefore, scaffold means a platform from which criminals are executed.

Uses-

  • The condemned man was led to the scaffold.
  • Workers put a scaffold to paint the building.
  • He met his death on the scaffold with calmness and dignity.
  • He was arrested and would have died on the scaffold if sympathisers had not rescued him.

                             

SCATHING (Adj.)

Meaning- Severe, injurious; bitterly harsh or critical.

Mnemonic trick-

Uses-

  • The school superintendent gave a scathing criticism of the education bill, calling it “an attack on our community’ s children who will surely go down infamy”.
  • How is it possible that she flew off her bicycle like that and walked away unscathed?

 

SCINTILLATE (Verb)

Meaning- 1) to sparkle or to emit sparks.

2) to capture attention or impress with one’ s vitality or wit.

Mnemonic trick- By remembering the poem, we can easily remember the word.

Synonym- TWINKLE, SPARKLE

Uses-

  • Diamond ring scintillated in the Sunlight.
  • Her eyes scintillated with excitement.
  • He has proven himself a prodigious master of sitar, his skills unlocking the instrument’ s potential to shine and scintillate.

 

CHAPTER 88 on Vocabulary

SANCTIMONIOUS (Adj.)

Meaning- person who feel that they are morally superior than other

Mnemonic trick- The word sanctimonious comes from word sanctity. Sanctity means quality or state of being holy, very important, or valuable. Sanctimonious is used for people who possesses sanctity or who makes an exaggerated show of holiness or moral superiority.

Uses-

  • Sanctimonious religious leaders preaching about morality.
  • Demands of sanctimonious upper middle class are rising fast.
  • He was just a sanctimonious politician.
  • He had a sickening sanctimonious smile as he criticized her efforts to help the family.
  • I have zero tolerance for sanctimonious morons who try to scare people.

 

SANGUINE (Adj.)

First Meaning-  confident and hopeful.

Synonym- OPTIMISTIC, HOPEFUL

Uses-

  • After elections, we are sanguine about the future of town.
  • We are sanguine that the problem can be corrected.
  • When anyone is sanguine about anything, it means that he or she is hopeful, confident, or cheerfully optimistic about it.
  • They are less sanguine about the prospects for peace.

SANGUINE (Adj.) & SANGUINARY (Adj.)

Second Meaning-  1) of or pertaining to the red fluid that flows in the body.

2) bloodthirsty

Mnemonic trick- sanguinary or ‘SANG NAARI’. ‘APNE SANG NAARI KE LIYE WOH SANGUINARY OR MURDEROUS HO GAYA’. Therefore, sanguinary means bloodthirsty or murderous or something pertaining to red fluid.

Synonym- BLOODRED, MURDEROUS, SANGUINARY

Explanation- Sanguine pertains to the red fluid that flows in the body. Sanguine also means bloodthirsty or murderous. But sanguinary means bloodthirsty or something consisting of blood.

Uses-

  • Sharon was told that her sanguine complexion meant that she had a healthy supply of blood flowing through her veins.
  • The movie was so sanguinary that I covered my eyes during at least half of it.

                                

SARDONIC (Adj.)

Meaning- showing disrespect or scorn for someone or something

Mnemonic trick- The word sardonic contains two Hindi words saree and don. ‘hotee hain saree don sardonic’. They are arrogant and show disrespect for others. Therefore, sardonic means showing disrespect or scorn for someone or something.

Synonym- BITTER, SARCASTIC, SCORNFUL

Explanation- Sardonic comments do not employ irony and Sarcastic comments employs irony.

Uses-

  • Sardonic comment or Sardonic style or Sardonic tone.
  • The movie is a sardonic look at modern life.
  • Shirley had a sardonic smile when she was told what a wonderful dress she was wearing.

                                   

SATIATED (Adj.)

Meaning- 1) person who has no more desire or completely satisfied

2) glutted

Explanation- satiate(verb) means to fully satisfy a need, desire etc. Therefore, satiated means a person who has no more desire or who is no more feeling hunger. Insatiable is used for person who is incapable of being satisfied.

Synonym- GLUTTED

Uses-

  • The huge dinner left him satiated.
  • His curiosity was satiated by her explanation.
  • The movie’ s ending failed to satiate audiences.

 

SATURNINE (Adj.)

Meaning- looking very serious and unhappy.

Mnemonic trick- 1) The word saturnine contains word Saturn. The man who is extremely sad or gloomy goes and settles to Saturn and lives in isolation there. Therefore, saturnine means extremely sad or gloomy.

2) The word saturnine contains word Saturn. Saturn = shani , shani makes wrong thing happens in one’ s life. Shani makes a person saturnine. Therefore, saturnine means gloomy or sad.

Synonym- CLIMMERIAN, ELEGIAC, LUGUBRIOUS, FUNEREAL, SEPULCHRAL, TENEBRIFIC

Uses-

  • The men awaiting interrogation by the police shared a saturnine silence.
  • We are saturnine about the future of share market.
  • I don’ t know what’ s wrong with him, but he looks saturnine.
  • His saturnine face and dark, watchful eyes.

 

 

 

CHAPTER 87 on Vocabulary

ROOT WORD PATH

PATHETIC (Adj.)

Meaning- 1) arousing or capable of arousing sympathetic feeling of sadness and pity.

2) very bad, poor, weak etc.

Explanation- path is a root word for feeling. Therefore, pathetic means arousing or capable of arousing feeling of sadness and pity.

Synonym- HEARTBREAKING, PITIABLE

Uses-

  • The blind and elderly dog was in pathetic condition.
  • The IPL team played badly last season, but this season they are absolutely pathetic.

ANTIPATHY (Noun)

Meaning- 1) A strong hostility, or opposition, toward someone or something.

2) A person, or something, that causes anger, hostility, strong opposition or disgust.

Explanation- path is a root word for feeling. Therefore, antipathy means someone (or something) arousing negative feeling or strong hostility toward someone.

Synonym- ANIMOSITY, BITTERNESS, ENMITY, RANCOR

Uses-

  • Journalist antipathy and prejudices toward ruling party are obvious.
  • There has always been antipathy between two political groups of college.

EMPATHY (Noun)

Meaning- 1) the feeling that you understand and share another person’ s emotions and feelings.

2) the ability to understand someone else’ s feelings and emotions.

Explanation- path is a root word for feeling. Therefore, empathy means an identification with and an understanding of another person’ s feelings or emotions.

Uses-

  • I am happy that some political leaders are feeling great empathy with refugees who left their country because of violence in middle-east.
  • His monthly spent researching prisons life gave him greater empathy towards convicts.
  • My work with the street people gave her considerably more empathy for the homeless than she had ever had before.

APATHETIC (Adj.)

Meaning- 1) Relating to a lack of emotion or a reduced level of activity.

2) Descriptive of a lack of interest and having no concern about something or someone.

Explanation- path is a root word for feeling. Therefore, apathetic means lack of feeling or lack of emotion.

Synonym- INDIFFERENT, IMPASSIVE

Uses-

  • Donald thought that Nora’ s apathetic behavior was the beginning of a significant form of depression.
  • Surprisingly, most Indians are apathetic toward this important issue.

 

ROOT WORD SOMN

Somn is a root word for sleep.

INSOMNIA (Noun)

Meaning- condition of not being able to fall asleep

Uses-

  • Sometimes when josie is very tired and in bed at night, she is in a state of insomnia and she turns this way and that way and is not resting.

SOMNOLENT (Adj.)

Meaning- person who is tired and ready to fall asleep or something causing a person to fall asleep

Uses-

  • He was trying to teach somnolent students on a very hot day.
  • The somnolent hum of insects in the grass.

SOMNAMBULIST (Noun)

 Meaning- person who walks around while asleep

Uses-

  • Just as the somnambulist reached the top of the stairs, his mother shrieked, and fortunately, he woke up.

SOMNILOQUIST (Noun)

Meaning- A person who talks out loud during his or her sleep

Uses-

  • Nomina amused her sister during the night because she was a somniloquist and often said the silliest thing when she was sleeping.

 

SACCHARINE (OR SENTIMENTAL) (Adj.)

Meaning- too sweet or emotional in a way that seems exaggerated

Mnemonic trick- The word saccharine contains word sacchar. Hindi word sacchar means sugar. Therefore, saccharine means too sweet or too sentimental in a way that seems exaggerated.

Synonym- SYRUPY, CLOYING, MAWKISH

Uses-

  • The movie was funny, but it had a saccharine ending in which everyone lives happily ever after.
  • He made a saccharine plea for donations to the charity.
  • She accepted his proposal and gave him a saccharine smile.
  • Michael graced him with saccharine smile and said no more.
  • I often been accused of being saccharine and emotional. But I believe in honest sentiment and the need to purge ourselves at certain times.

 

SADISTIC (Adj.)

Meaning- getting pleasure especially sexual pleasure from inflicting pain on others

Mnemonic trick- sadistic contains word sad and stick. Sadistic enjoys by beating other people with a stick or by making them sad. Therefore, sadistic is used for people who gets pleasure by inflicting pain on others.

Uses-

  • The sadistic treatment of the prisoner by ruthless guards.
  • I found a troubled sadistic youth.
  • The prisoners rioted against the mistreatment by sadistic guards.

 

SALUBRIOUS (Adj.)

Meaning- making good health possible mainly used for a clean and pleasant place.

Mnemonic trick- The word salubrious contains word salu. Salman khan (or salu bhai) lives at salubrious place of Mumbai with his bros. Therefore, salubrious means clean and pleasant place making good health possible.

Synonym- HEALTHFUL, SANATIVE

Antonym- INSALUBRIOUS, UNHEALTHFUL

Uses-

  • He does n’ t live in a very salubrious part of town.
  • Fresh air and exercise are always salubrious.
  • The mountain air is considered salubrious or pleasant and comfortable.
  • Wearing heavy clothes on a very hot day is not salubrious for one’ s life.

 

 

CHAPTER 86 on Vocabulary

RHETORIC (Noun)

Meaning- 1) speech or writing that is intended to influence people, but that is not completely honest or that is exaggerated.

2) The speech or writing intended to arouse passion or intended to impress others.

Mnemonic trick- The word rhetoric contains word ‘hetor’ and ‘het’. ’hetor’ sounds similar to heater and ‘het’ sounds similar to hat. In an election rally, Politician said that free heaters and free hat will be given to every citizen. People were aware that it was a mere rhetoric to win election. Therefore, rhetoric means speech or writing that is intended to influence people, but that is not completely honest or that is exaggerated.

Synonym- BOMBAST

Uses-

  • Are we ever going to move from empty rhetoric to a sound plan of action on this issue?
  • Too often, politicians in developing countries talk about solutions to the national debt problems, but they usually just offer rhetoric and no significant results.
  • There are those who use rhetoric as a verbose, long-winded speech that is meant to impress others.
  • Michael, the candidate, spoke with a fiery political rhetoric that was full of artificial eloquence and verbosity.

 

RIBALD (Adj.)

Meaning- Using or related to obscene or vulgar humor.

Uses-

  • The movie’ s humor was so ribald that movie faced severe opprobrium from censor board and Joy’ s mother covered up his eyes nearly every time a woman was on the screen.
  • Victor’s ribaldor indecent jokes were not acceptable by most of the people who were at the party.
  • Sometimes on a TV talk show, a person will use a ribaldexpression which usually results in a noise, or beep, that obliterates what he or she says.

 

ROTUND (Adj.)

Meaning- Fat and round.

                                 

RUSTICATE (Verb)

Meaning- 1) to spend time in the country and to follow a rustic lifestyle

2) to become rustic or countrified in lifestyle

Explanation- rustic means rural or country people. Therefore, rusticate means to live a rustic life in the country.

Uses-

  • After David’ s mother and father moved from their farm to a large city, they returned after a few years with their three children to rusticate themselves again in a new agricultural vocation.
  • After my retirement, I will rusticate to enjoy the peacefulness and quietness which I missed in the big city.
  • Michael was grown up in the city and He took a while before He was able to rusticate himself when he went to live with his grandparents on their farm during the summer.

 

ROOT WORD LOQU

Loqu is a root word for speak.

LOQUACIOUS (Adj.)

Meaning- liking to talk and talking smoothly and easily.

Synonym- GARRULOUS

Synonym Explanation- loquacious is used for person who talks smoothly and easily and garrulous is used for person who is very talkative.

Uses-

  • Sania is a loquacious host of radio talk show.
  • Loquaciousness is a key to have huge fan following.

ELOQUENT (Adj.)

Meaning- having or showing the ability to use language clearly and effectively

Synonym- ARTICULATE, FLUENT, WELL-SPOKEN

Uses-

  • Narendra Modi’s speech in election rallies were always eloquent and powerful.
  • An eloquent writer and speaker, Elizabeth Cady Stanton was one of the founders of the women’ s right movement.

GRANDILOQUENT (Adj.)

Meaning- speaking in bombastic, flamboyant or pompous manner

Uses-

  • Grandiloquent heavy weight champion was famous for his braggadocio prior to every match.
  • Undoubtedly, Grandiloquence is a key to get success in politics.

 

 

                           

 

CHAPTER 85 on Vocabulary

REPUDIATE (Verb)

Meaning- 1) to refuse to accept or support (something).

2) to refuse to have anything to do with; to disown

3) to reject as untrue or unjust; such as, to repudiate a charge or to repudiate an allegation.

4) to disapprove of something formally and strongly.

5) to divorce or to separate formally from (a woman).

Mnemonic trick- The word repudiate contains word ‘repu’ and ‘ate’.’repu’ sounds similar to rupee. He took my rupee and repudiated my offer. Therefore, repudiate means to refuse to accept or support (something).

Synonym- REFUTE, REJECT, DISCONFIRM, DISOWN

Uses-

  • He repudiated the allegation/charge/claim.
  • He has publicly repudiated the government’ s policies.
  • He published an article that repudiates the study’ s claims.

 

RANCOR (OR RESENTMENT) (Noun)

Meaning- feeling of hatred or desire to hurt someone especially because of the thinking that they have done something unfair to you.

Mnemonic trick- The word rancor sounds similar to ranker. In class students, have feeling of hatred for ranker of their class and students want to be ahead of topper and sometimes students think that topper got good marks by using some unfair method. Therefore, rancor means feeling of hatred or desire to hurt someone especially because of the thinking that they have done something unfair to you.

Synonym- ACRIMONY, BITTERNESS, MALICE, ENMITY, VINDICTIVENESS, HOSTILITY, MALEVOLENCE

Uses-

  • Politician answered bitter questions of reporters without rancor.
  • Debate created degree of rancor among panelists.
  • All the confusion at the airport caused considerable rancor mong the passengers whose flights were delayed so long or cancelled.

 

RESPLENDENT (OR REFULGENT) (Noun)

Meaning- very bright and attractive

Synonym- SPLENDID, GLITTERING, DAZZLING, BRILLIANT

Mnemonic trick- splend in word resplendent is similar to splendor. I have new resplendent splendor bike. Therefore, resplendent means shinning or bright or attractive.

Uses-

  • He glimpsed Sonia, resplendent in her red gown.
  • The wedding altar was resplendent with flowers.

                                       

RETICENT (Adj.)

Meaning- Inclined to keep one’ s thoughts, feelings and personal affairs to oneself or not willing to tell people about things.

Mnemonic trick- The word reticent contains word ‘cent’. ‘cent’ sounds similar to saint. Saints hardly talk to people and they keep their thoughts, feelings and personal affairs to themselves. Therefore, reticent means inclined to keep one’ s thoughts, feelings and personal affairs to oneself or not willing to tell people about things.

Synonym- UNCOMMUNICATIVE, TACITURN, RESERVED

Antonym- ELOQUENT, GARRULOUS, LOQUACIOUS

Uses-

  • The panel decided to investigate the fraud charges against the company, which has always been reticent about its internal operations.
  • Curtis is reticent about discussing his past life.
  • Mollie was reticent about discussing the cause of her feeling so sad.
  • Most of the students are reticent about responding to teacher.

 

RETROSPECTIVE (Adj.)

Meaning- 1) Looking to the pastor backward; applying to the past.

2) effective from a particular date in the past.

Synonym- RETROACTIVE

Uses-

  • The proposed law is retrospective: anyone who violated the law before the law even existed can be prosecuted.

RETROSPECTIVE (Noun)

Meaning- An exhibition of work that an artist has done in the past.

Uses-

  • The museum is featuring a retrospective of Picasso’ s early works.