CHAPTER 84 on Vocabulary

REMNANT (Noun)

Meaning- left part of something when other parts are gone.

Mnemonic trick- The word remnant sounds similar to remaining part. Therefore, remnant means remaining part of something.

Synonym- REMAINING PART, LEFTOVER, RELIC, VESTIGE, SCRAP

Uses-

  • We are going to sell remnants on sale next week.
  • We put remnants of last night meal to street dogs.
  • A few strange words carved on a tree were the only remnants of the early civilization.
  • Nothing has left after earthquake except remnants of collapsed buildings.
  • A tiny remnant of a big thing is better than a whole little thing.

 

RENDEZVOUS (OR TRYST) (Noun) AND RENDEZVOUS (OR TRYST) (Verb)

RENDEZVOUS (OR TRYST) (Noun)

 Meaning- 1) A meeting with someone that is arranged for a particular time and place and that is often secret.

2) A place where people agree to meet at a particular time.

Uses-

  • This restaurant is a popular rendezvous for local artists.
  • I got late for my rendezvous.
  • We always have our annual meeting at our secret rendezvous which is at central Library.
  • Nick planned to attend a rendezvous with his former business colleagues.
  • Jane and James decided to have a rendezvous the next evening at 7 p.m. at their favorite restaurant.

RENDEZVOUS (OR TRYST) (Verb)

Meaning- to meet at a particular time and place.

Uses-

  • They rendezvoused in New Delhi before they flew to New York.
  • We will rendezvous in one of the famous restaurants of Cannaught place.
  • Before we know it, they have, indeed, rendezvoused at Dulles airport.
  • The brother and sister were meeting at the local airport so they could fly together to rendezvous with their parents for the holidays.

 

APOSTATE (OR DESERTER OR RENEGADE) (Noun)

Meaning- 1) a person whose beliefs have changed and who no longer belongs to a religious or political group.

Synonym- DEFECTOR, RECREANT

Uses-

  • An apostate from one political party, later became one of its harshest critics.
  • Social renegades gave rise to revolution against government.
  • These renegades have rebelled against and rejected heaven, so they must in turn be denied life.
  • The honest man must be a perpetual renegade, the life of an honest man a perpetual infidelity. For the man who wishes to remain faithful must take himself perpetually unfaithful to all the continual, successive, indefatigable errors.

 

REPERCUSSION (Noun)

Meaning- 1) outcome or something usually bad or unpleasant that happens as a result of an action, statement etc.

Mnemonic trick- The word repercussion contains word cussion. Cussion sounds similar to discussion. When something happens, we have discussion regarding affects or repercussions of the event. Therefore, repercussion means outcome or something usually bad that happens as a result of an action, statement etc.

Synonym- IMPACT, RAMIFICATION, IMPLICATION, COROLLARY, AFTERMATH

Uses-

  • The collapse of the company will have repercussions for the whole industry.
  • The decision of the Britain to come out of European union will have repercussion for the whole world.
  • The new law had repercussions on French society.
  • Your decision not to go for higher education will have repercussions on your future.
  • There will be repercussions on much wider scale.
  • Today, an action anywhere on Earth has an immediate repercussion on all five continents.
  • The earthquake had adverse repercussions on the nation, it left people homeless and jobless.

 

REPROBATE (Verb, Adj. & Noun) 

REPROBATE (Verb)

Meaning- To condemn strongly as unworthy.

REPROBATE (Adj.)

Meaning- morally corrupt or rejected as worthless.

REPROBATE (Noun)

Meaning- A person who behaves in a morally wrong way.

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER 83 on Vocabulary

RECUPERATE (Verb)

First Meaning-  1) to return to normal health after being sick, injured etc.

2) to get back your strength or money that has been invested, spent, lost etc.

Mnemonic trick- 1) The word recuperate contains word recuper. Recuper sounds similar to recover. Recover means to become healthy after an illness or injury or to get back something such as ability or strength. Therefore, recuperate means to return to return to normal health after being sick, injured etc.

2) Second meaning of word recuperate comes from word recoup. Recoup means to get back money that has been invested, lost, spent etc. Therefore, recuperate means to get back your strength or money that has been invested, lost etc.

Synonym- CONVALESCE, RECOUP, RECOVER

Uses-

  • He spent a month in the country recuperating after the operation.
  • During his tenure, the country found time to recuperate its forces after war.
  • Investors want to recoup their money invested in Sharda chit fund.
  • He took a day off to recuperate.

            

REDOUBTABLE (OR FORMIDABLE) (Adj.)

Meaning- 1) causing or deserving great fear or respect.

2) very powerful and impressive.

Mnemonic trick- The word redoubtable contains word doubt. We can’ t doubt on a powerful and impressive person. Therefore, redoubtable means powerful and impressive person deserving respect or causing fear.

Synonym- FORMIDABLE, MIGHTY, FEARSOME

Uses-

  • Today Bijender will face the most redoubtable opponent in his career of professional boxing.
  • The new soccer player is considered a redoubtable member of the team, because he is very fast and a skillful kicker when he is playing opposing players.
  • Redoubtable Rishi Kapoor is writing his auto-biography.
  • As a journalist, the acrimony of his polemical writings made him a redubtable adversary.

REGALE (Verb) AND REGALE (Noun)

REGALE (Verb)

Meaning- 1) to entertain or amuse somebody with stories, jokes etc.

2) to feast oneself.

Mnemonic trick- The word regale contains word gale. Gale sounds similar to Gayle. Chris gayle regaled his fans with his super performance in Indian premium league. Therefore, regale means to entertain or amuse somebody.

Synonym- DELIGHT, AMUSE, ENTERTAIN

Uses-

  • He regaled his children with stories of his time in Morocco.
  • She regaled us with false tales of his adventure in Antarctica.
  • “I’m glad I regaleyou,” Damian said flatly.
  • it’s enlightening to regale a guest who possesses some modicum of intelligence and civility.

REGALE (Noun)

Meaning- A luxurious feast.

Synonym- DINNER

Uses-

  • She will host a regale to honor the retiring supreme court justice.

 

REJOINDER (OR REPARTEE OR RETORT OR RIPOSTE) (Noun)

Meaning- A quick reply to a question or remark; especially one that is amusing or clever one.

Synonym- BANTER, BADINAGE, RAILLERY

Uses-

  • Norbert made a clever rejoinder hen the customer made obviously false claims about the quality of the products in the market.
  • Minister always has a smart rejoinder to every question raised by journalists.
  • Lady was known for having a brilliant rejoinder to nearly any insult.
  • I enjoyed hearing good-natured rejoinder of lovers in movie.

                               

RELEGATE (Verb)

Meaning- 1) to Put (someone or something) in a lower or less important position, rank etc.

2) to assign an idea or a concept to a place of insignificance or to put something out of one’ s mind.

Synonym- DEMOTE, CONSIGN

Uses-

  • She was then relegated to the role of assistant.
  • He relegated the incident to the back of his mind.
  • When the head librarian decided to delegate Krista to represent her library at the conference, she was concerned about the efforts of a minority to relegate the discussion of new books for the library to the bottom of the agenda.

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER 82 on Vocabulary

RECALCITRANT (Adj.)

Meaning- stubbornly refusing to obey rules or orders.

Mnemonic trick- The word recalcitrant contains word calci. Recalcitrant students always use calci in examination. Therefore, recalcitrant means stubbornly refusing to obey rules or orders.

Synonym- INSUBORDINATE, INCOMPLIANT, CONTUMACIOUS, DISOBEDIENT, REBELLIOUS, DEFIANT

Uses-

  • The judge threatened to charge the recalcitrant witness with contempt of court.
  • Officer was worried that it would be difficult to deal with recalcitrant staff.
  • A heart-to-heart talk with the recalcitrant youth revealed that he had a troubled life at home.
  • He was a perpetually recalcitrant employee who seemed to think that the rules did not apply to him.
  • A recalcitrant child who deliberately does the opposite of whatever is told.

 

RECLUSE (Noun)

Meaning- A person who lives alone and likes to avoid other people.

Mnemonic trick- 1) The word recluse contains word luse. Luse sounds similar to lose. Recluse is a person who has lost all his relationships and who is marked by withdrawal from society. Therefore, recluse means a person who lives alone and avoid other people.

2) The word recluse contains word cluse. Cluse sounds similar to close. Recluse may be defined as a person who lives alone in a closed space and likes to avoid other people.

Synonym- SOLITARY, HERMIT, ANCHORITE, EREMITE

Uses-

  • I got sick of overcrowded cities and pollution, so I decided to start living in the forest as a recluse.
  • Everyone wants to enjoy comforts of world, no one wants to live life of a recluse.
  • In many ways he was still a recluse, but he was not wrapped up in himself.
  • After his divorce, he began to live a recluse life.
  • Josh’s neighbor is a recluse and is seen no more than once a year.
  • Some recluses live in solitude in the forests or mountains completely away from other people.

 

RECONCILE (Verb)

Meaning- 1) to find a way in which two situations or beliefs that are opposed to each other can agree and exist together.

2) to cause people or groups to become friendly again after an argument or disagreement.

Mnemonic trick- The word reconcile contains word counsel. After break-up or divorce experts counsel lovers to make them to resolve differences. Therefore, reconcile means to cause people or groups to become friendly again after an argument or disagreement or to find way in which two situations or beliefs that are opposed to each other can agree and exist together.

Synonym- CONCILIATE, RESOLVE

Uses-

  • It is sometimes difficult to reconcile science and religion.
  • It is difficult to reconcile such different points of view.
  • After knowing about disloyalty of my lover, I can’ t reconcile the differences.
  • It is impossible to reconcile self-expression with the creative thought.
  • Can that inherent conflict be reconciled successfully?

 

RECRIMINATION (Noun)

Meaning- an angry statement in which you accuse or criticize a person who has accused or criticized you

Explanation- The word recrimination contains two words re and crimination. Criminate means to cause someone to appear guilty of or responsible for something such as crime. Crimination means accusation. Recrimination means retaliatory accusation. Therefore, recrimination means angry statement in which you accuse or criticize a person who has accused or criticized you.

Uses-

  • When a husband and wife quarrel they frequently indulge in bitter recriminations.
  • The discussion turned into a heated debate with recriminations flying back and forth.
  • The meeting ended with bitterness and recrimination.

 

RECTITUDE (Noun)

Meaning- The quality of thinking and behaving in a correct and honest way.

Mnemonic trick- The word rectitude is formed by the combination of two words ‘rectify’ and ‘attitude’. Rectify means to correct something that is wrong. Therefore, rectitude means correct attitude or quality of thinking and behaving in a correct and honest way.

Synonym- RIGHTEOUSNESS, INTEGRITY, UPRIGHTNESS

Uses-

  • He is an austere man of unquestioned moral rectitude.
  • The devotion of people to god is the demonstration of divine rectitude.
  • One excellent way to forget is to focus with righteous rectitude on the evils of others while focusing on the nobility of oneself.
  • Conscience is merely our own judgement of the moral rectitude or turpitude of our own actions.
  • Justice is a certain rectitude of mind whereby a man does what he ought to do in the circumstances confronting him.

 

CHAPTER 81 on Vocabulary

RATIOCINATION (Noun)

Meaning- exact thinking or process of methodical and logical reasoning.

Mnemonic trick- The word ratiocination contains word ratio. Process of methodical and logical reasoning is required to solve problems on RATIO AND PROPORTION in mathematics.

Synonym- INTELLECTION, REASONING

Uses-

  • He used ratiocination and available evidence to solve the case.
  • When asked to explain why he invested so much in the company, Larry said he used all kinds of ratiocinations before he committed himself to get involved with the newly formed business.
  • As an expert in ratiocination, the officer has few rivals.
  • You need ratiocination to see good in every situation.

 

RATIONALIZE (Verb)

 Meaning- to attempt to justify something or to make excuses for bad behavior.

Uses-

  • We usually try to rationalize our mistake by blaming it on someone else.
  • He could not rationalize buying an expensive car.
  • After the Renaissance, or revival or rebirth of old learning into new development and culture, numerous attempts were made to rationalize the old myths.

               

RAVAGE (Verb) AND RAVAGE (Noun)

RAVAGE (Verb)

Meaning- to damage something badly.

Mnemonic trick- The word ravage sounds similar to word revenge. Revenge means to take avenge. Whenever we want to take revenge on our enemy, we want to destroy him completely. Therefore, ravage means to destroy.

Synonym- DEVASTATE, PILLAGE, DESPOIL, DESTROY, RUIN, SCOURGE

Uses-

  • Some countries of Africa were ravaged by civil war.
  • Definitely next world war will ravage the whole world.
  • A cyclone ravaged the town causing severe demolition to the buildings and houses.
  • The enemy soldiers ravaged the village, looting and plundering along the way.
  • This excessive dependence upon a single industry, which is in its turn dependent upon the accident of the seasons, upon a favorable or unfavorable monsoon, has been held to be one of the main causes of the frequent famines which ravage India.

RAVAGE (Noun)

Meaning- An act or process of ravaging.

Uses-

  • World can’t forget the ravages of world wars.
  • World powers are highly responsible for ravages of terrorism in middle-east.

 

REALM (Noun)

First Meaning- An area of interest or knowledge.

Mnemonic trick- The word realm contains word real. Something realistic is always the area of interest for public and something quixotic will not be the area of public interest. Therefore, realm means area of public interest.

Synonym- DOMAIN, DISCIPLINE

Uses-

  • At the end of speech, he seemed to be moving into the realms of fantasy.
  • But once you publish a book, does n’ t it by definition become the realm of public discourse.
  • Debates of parliament are in the realm of public interest.
  • Therefore, do not consider even bothering to try asking for any help as it is completely beyond the realms of possibility that you will be able to find a helpful face in the entire store.

Second Meaning- A country that is ruled by a king or queen.

Mnemonic trick- kings of realm is a famous game. Therefore, realm means a country that is ruled by a king or queen.

Synonym- KINGDOM, MONARCHY

Uses-

  • In the animal realm, the lion is the king of beasts.
  • Perfect strategy is must for defense of realm from enemies.

 

REFUTE (OR CONTROVERT OR REBUT) (Verb)

Meaning- to say or prove that (something) is wrong.

Mnemonic trick- The word refute sounds similar to word refuse. Refuse means to say that you will not accept something. Refute has slight different meaning. It means to say or prove that (something) is wrong.

Synonym- REPUDIATE, CONTRADICT

Uses-

  • She refuted the allegations against her.
  • The lawyer, Mr. Mehta, refuted the testimony of the witness against his client, Mr. Smith, as being completely untrue.
  • Greg’s employer totally refutes the allegation that he is racially biased.
  • Mike is refuting the notion that he is planning to retire soon.

 

 

CHAPTER 80 on Vocabulary

RAMSHACKLE (Adj.)

Meaning- (of a building, vehicles, furniture etc.) in a very bad condition and repair.

Mnemonic trick- The word ramshackle contains word ram and shackle. Shackle sounds similar to cycle. Ram (verb) means to forcefully hit something. A person rammed a cycle into ramshackle home and made ramshackle home to fall. Therefore, ramshackle means a building or furniture in a very bad condition.

Synonym- BEDRAGGLED, DERELICT, DILAPIDATED, RICKETY, DECREPIT

Uses-

  • He is doing maintenance of ramshackle machinery.
  • Survey should be done to find out number of ramshackle buildings in the old city.
  • The movie’ s ramshackle plot is confusing and not believable.
  • But the difficulty is not to be met by running to the opposite extreme in the assertion of a loose and ramshackle one.

 

RANCOR (OR RESENTMENT) (Noun)

Meaning- feeling of hatred or desire to hurt someone especially because of the thinking that they have done something unfair to you.

Mnemonic trick- The word rancor sounds similar to ranker. In class students, have feeling of hatred for ranker of their class and students want to be ahead of topper and sometimes students think that topper got good marks by using some unfair method. Therefore, rancor means feeling of hatred or desire to hurt someone especially because of the thinking that they have done something unfair to you.

Synonym- ACRIMONY, BITTERNESS, MALICE, ENMITY, VINDICTIVENESS, HOSTILITY, MALEVOLENCE

Uses-

  • Politician answered bitter questions of reporters without rancor.
  • Debate created degree of rancor among panelists.
  • All the confusion at the airport caused considerable rancor mong the passengers whose flights were delayed so long or cancelled.

 

VITRIOLIC (OR RANCOROUS) (Adj.)

Meaning- full of anger and hatred

Synonym- ACRIDNESS, CAUSTIC, MORDANT, VENOMOUS

Uses-

  • Media launched a vitriolic attack on corrupt minister.
  • Prisoners are to be executed after their pleas for clemency were turned down.
  • He gave vitriol answer to his accusers.
  • During political campaign, candidates often make vitriolic attacks on their opponents.
  • As the lecturer entered, students whispered a steady stream of vitriolic comments.

 

CAMARADERIE (OR RAPPORT) (Noun)

Meaning- A trustworthy friendship and loyalty between people

Mnemonic trick- camaraderie contains word ‘camara’ (or room) and derie sounds similar to dairy. ‘good friends pete hain ek hi camara (or room) pe darru and ek hi dairy pe doodh’. Therefore, camaraderie means a feeling of good friendship among the people in a group.

Synonym- FRIENDSHIP, AFFILIATION, AFFINITY

Uses-

  • A good camaraderie among the athletes on and off the field not only makes it fun to play sports, but is also likely to make their team win.
  • There should be good camaraderie among the teammates.
  • The loyalty and camaraderie of war time army.
  • When you have been climbing alone for hours, there is a tremendous sense of camaraderie when you meet another climber.

 

RAPTURE (Adj.) AND RAPTURE (Verb)

RAPTURE (Adj.)

Meaning- extreme pleasure and happiness or excitement.

Mnemonic trick- 1) According to christian theology, rapture means final assumption of Christians into heaven during the end-time. Therefore, rapture means transportation of a person from one place to another especially to heaven. Later we started using word rapture for extreme pleasure and happiness.

2) The word rapture sounds similar to capture. When king captures another territory, people of his state greets him with rapture. Therefore, rapture means extreme pleasure and happiness or excitement.

Synonym- EUPHORIA, ECSTASY, BLISS, ELATION

Uses-

  • He listened to the music with an expression of pure rapture on his face.
  • The prime minister’ s supporters greeted her speech with rapture.
  • There were raptures of joy when the residents of the community heard that the floods had receded and would not cause any further damage or harm.
  • William and Elizabeth listened with rapture as they twelve-year-old daughter sang solo during the music festival.

RAPTURE (Verb)

Meaning- 1) to fill someone with delight.

2) the transportation of a person from one place to another especially to heaven.

Synonym- ENRAPTURE

Uses-

  • Rahul’ s academic achievement raptured his parents.
  • Her melodious voice raptured the audience.
  • Christians will be raptured from earth before final tribulation.

 

CHAPTER 79 on Vocabulary

RAIL (Verb)

First Meaning- 1) to complain angrily about something.

2) to scold in harsh, insolent or abusive language.

Synonym- LAMBASTE, CASTIGATE, ADMONISH, REPROACH

Uses-

  • A patient was railing against the medical staff because she had slipped and fallen on the floor in hospital room at night and she could n ‘t get up or contact anyone to help her.
  • The workers were railing about the unfair treatment they had received from their employer.
  • Many people railed him for his callous behavior.

Second Meaning- Normally to use metal bars to create a barrier around or at the edge of something.

Uses-

  • The city railed off the pedestrian walk on the bridge going across the river.
  • The workers are in the process of railing off the sides of the balconies of the high-rise apartment.

 

RAIMENT (Noun)

Meaning- Clothing or garments.

 

RAKE (Noun)

First Meaning- A person (especially a man) who leads an immoral life, drinks too much alcohol and who has many sexual relationships.

Mnemonic trick- The word rake sounds similar to rate. Rake person is one who asks questions from ladies such as ‘KYA RATE HAIN’. Therefore, rake means a person (especially a man) who leads a immoral life, drinks too much alcohol and who has many sexual relationships.

Synonym- LIBERTINE, DEGENERATE, DEBAUCHEE, DISSOLUTE, SQUANDERER

Uses-

  • I am reading biography of a rake who underwent a late-life religious conversion and became a monk.
  • Just like a rake, he is uninterested in anything but his own gratification.
  • He played the role of a playboy and rake.

 Second Meaning- A long-handled tool with a row of teeth used for gathering material (as leaves) or for loosening or smoothing the surface of the ground.

 

RAMIFICATION (Noun)

First Meaning- The possible result of an action or one of the large number of complicated and unexpected results that follow an action or a decision.

Mnemonic trick- The word ramification contains word cation. Cation sounds similar to action. After performing action, we look for possible result of an action. Therefore, ramification means possible result of an action.

Synonym- CONSEQUENCE, SEQUEL, IMPLICATION

Uses-

  • These changes are bound to have widespread social ramification.
  • Insurrection brought out as a ramification of widely spread conspiracy throughout world.
  • But whatever the ramifications, whatever turns the path takes, the beginning is always there in a particular moment, a particular point of access.
  • I have to think about the possible ramification of early retirement.

Second Meaning- process of splitting up into branches or constituent parts.

Mnemonic trick- The word ramification came from word ramify. Ramify(verb) means to spilt up into branches or constituent particles. Therefore, ramification means process of splitting up into branches or constituent parts.

Uses-

  • Plain rises gradually towards interior, terminating in a ramification of valley.
  • Opposition was united in parliament but it was ramified on the streets during protest.

 

RAMPANT (Adj.) AND RAMPART(Noun)

RAMPANT (Adj.)

Meaning- describes something common, spreading quickly and that is difficult to control.

Mnemonic trick- The word rampant contains word RAM. Followers of lord RAM are common and they are spreading quickly. Therefore, rampant means something that is common, spreading quickly and that is difficult to control.

Synonym- UNBRIDLED

Uses-

  • Stopping of rampant crime was main issue in the elections.
  • There is a concern by local officials about the rampant crime wave that is going on in the city.
  • There have been rampant wildfires which have destroyed many homes in Colorado and California.

RAMPART(Noun)

Meaning- A high wide wall of stone or earth with a path on top, built around a castle, town etc. to defend it.

Mnemonic trick- The word rampart contains word Ram. In Ramayana, army of Ram made a rampart to save them from arrows of Ravana. Therefore, rampart means high wide wall of stones built around a castle, town etc. to defend them.

Synonym- BULWARK, FORTIFICATION, EMBANKMENT

Uses-

  • Fearing an enemy attack, the soldiers stared building a rampart around the castle.
  • Mahi river is surrounded by an old disused rampart and adorned by various Hindu temples.
  • Two years after the rebellion, a rampart was raised around the town pierced by four gates on the land side.
  • Does n’ t PM modi raising the issue of Balochistan from the ramparts of red fort emphasize the seriousness of human rights violation committed by Pakistan?

 

 

 

CHAPTER 78 on Vocabulary

QUIBBLE (Verb)

Meaning- Make trivial arguments or criticism, find faults in a petty way, especially to evade something more important.

Uses-

  • Look, I am telling you some of the serious consequences of global warming, as predicted by the scientific establishment-I think you are just quibbling to complain that I said “Carbon monoxide” when I meant “Carbon dioxide”.
  • The computer programmer and his customer were quibbling about how parts of the program should function.
  • People quibbled about the length of the speech and said nothing about its main content.

QUIBBLE (Noun)

Meaning- Make trivial arguments or criticism, find faults in a petty way, especially to evade something more important.

Uses-

  • A slight complaint or criticism about something that is not important.

                                

QUIESCENT (Adj.)

Meaning- 1) temporarily quiet and not active.

2) In medicine, pertaining to causing no trouble or symptoms.

Mnemonic trick- The word quiescent contains two words ‘quies’ and ‘scent’. ‘quies’ sounds similar to quiet and ‘scent’ sounds similar to ‘saint’. Quiescent person is quiet like a saint. Therefore, quiescent means temporarily quiet and not active.

Synonym- INERT, LETHARGIC, INACTIVE, SLUGGISH, TORPID, DORMANT

Uses-

  • The family was quiescent as they were watching interesting film on TV.
  • The doctor Jill that her quiescent gallstones should not be a problem; at least, not for a while.
  • The political situation was now relatively quiescent.
  • His quiescent nature was embarrassing.

                                   

QUIXOTIC (Adj.)

Meaning- having or involving ideas or plans that show imagination but are usually not practical

Mnemonic trick- The word quixotic is made from two words Quick + exotic. Exotic means something very strange or unusual especially because it is foreign. If you want to have number of exotic things quickly. This is impractical. Therefore, quixotic means impractical or something not practical.

Synonym- UTOPIAN, IDEALISTIC, IMPRACTICAL

Uses-

  • Kangna is making quixotic effort of installing operating system windows 8 on her Nokia phone.
  • We should not have quixotic dreams about our future.
  • Are you hopeful, romantic and idealistic almost to a ridiculous extreme? You are quixotic.
  • His ideas were rejected and declared quixotic, as it involved reckless spending.

                                   

QUOTIDIAN (Adj.)

Meaning- Daily; everyday, ordinary

 

Uses-

  • He was so involved in his quest for spiritual enlightenment that he regularly forgot more quotidian concerns- sure, he meditated for six hours a day, but he would forget to do laundry for weeks!

 

RAGAMUFFIN (OR TATTERDEMALION) (Noun)

Meaning- A person usually a child who is wearing old clothes that are torn and dirty.

Mnemonic trick- The word ragamuffin contains word rag. Ragpicker usually wears old clothes that are torn and dirty. Ragpicker looks like a ragamuffin. Therefore, ragamuffin means a person usually a child who is wearing old clothes that are torn and dirty.

Synonym- URCHIN

Uses-

  • After watching ragamuffin, we usually feel sad and thanks to good that he has given everything to us.
  • The ragamuffin gospel, says we can’ t loose because we have nothing to loose.

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER 77 on Vocabulary

PUNITIVE (Adj.)

Meaning- 1) intended to punish someone or something

2) used to describe cost which are so high and which are often used to punish someone or limit their activities.

Mnemonic trick- The word punitive contains word puni. Word puni sounds similar to punish. Punitive is being concerned with punishment. Hence ‘punitive’ means to serve or inflict punishment.

Synonym- PUNISHING

Uses-

  • The UN imposed punitive sanctions on the invading country.
  • The president has threatened to impose punitive import duties.
  • WADA (world anti-doping agency) is taking highly punitive measures against those who failed their drug test.
  • The continued misconduct of the bureaucrats from beyond the administrative border rendered punitive measures necessary.
  • Punitive damages may be awarded to sufferer in addition to compensatory damages. They are intended to punish the wrongdoer. They differ from a criminal fine in that the injured person receives it, while criminal fines are received by government prosecuting the crime.

 

PURGATORY (Noun)

Meaning- 1) the place to which spirits of dead people go and suffer for the evil acts that they did while they were alive, before they are able to go to heaven.

2) a place or state of suffering.

Mnemonic trick- The word purgatory sounds similar to ‘PAADEGA TREE’. ‘PAADEGA TREE TOO PAHUCH JAAYEGA PURGATORY’ or If you cut trees you will go to purgatory. Therefore, purgatory means place or state of suffering.

Synonym- HELL

Uses-

  • Prayers were said for souls in purgatory.
  • I have been on a diet for two weeks and now it’ s purgatory.
  • The purgatory of drug abuse.
  • In this purgatory, he could expect no help from his comrades.

 

PUSILLANIMOUS (Adj.)

Meaning- weak and afraid of danger or frightened of taking risks

Mnemonic trick- The word pusillanimous contains word pusi. Pusi sounds similar to pussycat. Pussycat is always pusillanimous. Therefore, pusillanimous means weak and afraid of danger.

Synonym- COWARDLY

Uses-

  • He is too pusillanimous to stand up to his opponents.
  • The authorities have been too pusillanimous in merely condemning the violence.
  • You should be ashamed of your pusillanimous conduct during this dispute.

 

QUAIL (Noun)

Meaning- 1) A kind of small wild bird that is often hunted.

QUAIL (Verb)

Meaning- 1) to feel afraid and often to show your fear in a way that can be clearly seen.

                               

QUALM (Noun)

Meaning- A feeling of doubt or uncertainty while doing wrong thing.

Synonym- RELUCTANCE, SCRUPLE, CONSCIENCE

Uses-

  • John felt a certain qualm at leaving his work incomplete before he went on his vacation.
  • The workers had many qualms as to whether the company’ s plans were practical.

 

 

 

CHAPTER 76 on Vocabulary

PROVENDER (Noun)

Meaning- dry food for livestock or fodder.

Mnemonic trick- The word provender sounds similar to vendor. Nowadays we can’ t find any vendor on streets selling provender. We directly purchase provender from whole sale market. Therefore, provender means dry food for livestock or fodder.

Synonym- FODDER

Uses-

  • I have stored a large quantity of provender for cattle, but still I am afraid of drought.
  • A chef who prides himself on creating all of his dishes from local provender.
  • Lalu was accused of his involvement in provender scam.

 

PROVISO (Noun)

Meaning- a condition that must be accepted in order for someone to agree to do something.

Mnemonic trick- The word proviso sounds similar to provision. They have similar meaning. Proviso is generally used for condition that must be satisfied in order for someone to agree to do something. Provision means preparatory actions or something that is done to prepare for something.

Synonym- CONDITION, PROVISION

Uses-

  • He was released from prison with the proviso that he does n’ t leave the country.
  • I told Norman that I would invest in his venture as long as he agreed to one proviso.
  • Belinda agreed to work on the project with the proviso that she would get extra pay for working overtime on it.

                              

PUERILE (Adj.)

Meaning- silly or childish in a way that shows a lack of seriousness or good judgement.

Mnemonic trick- The word puerile contains word puer and rile. Puer sounds similar to pure and rile sounds similar to real. Puri brothers are violent in films, but they are purely puerile in real life. Therefore, puerile means childish or silly.

Synonym- CHILDISH, INFANTILE, ADOLESCENT

Uses-

  • He told the teenagers that such puerile behavior would not be tolerated during the funeral.
  • Concert organizer branded the group’ s action as puerile.

                              

PUISSANT (Adj.)

Meaning- Powerful or having puissance.

Synonym- POTENT, POWERFUL

Uses-

  • Pakistani army has put its full puissance into committing atrocities against people of Baluchistan.

PUISSANCE (Noun)

Meaning- Power to influence or coerce.

Uses-

  • You have to reckon the puissance of labor votes.

 

PULCHRITUDE (OR COMELINESS) (Noun)

Meaning- beauty, especially a woman’ s beauty

Explanation- comeliness (Adj.) means beautiful. Comely means beauty.

Synonym- BEAUTIFULNESS

Uses-

  • Erin’ s pulchritude was legendary bringing admires from near and end.
  • She is proud of her pulchritude.
  • I do not envy the judges who have to select this year’ s Miss India from this collection of female pulchritude.

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER 75 on Vocabulary

PROSELYTIZE (Verb)

Meaning- 1) to urge others to join or to convert to a particular religion.

2) to convert someone to join or to accept a particular political party or political philosophy.

Mnemonic trick- The word proselytize contains word ‘prose’. ‘prose’ sounds similar to force. We have herd number of proses in which proselytizers forced Hindus to accept Islam. Therefore, proselytize means to urge others to join or to convert to a particular religion.

Synonym- CONVERT

Uses-

  • There are some religious denominations that expect their members to proselytize other people into joining their congregations.
  • A good orator can easily proselytize a group of people into joining his terrorist organization.

                        

PROSTRATE (Adj. & Verb)

PROSTRATE (Adj.)

Meaning-  1) lying flat without the energy or power to rest

2) lying with face downward and arms stretched out, especially in obedience or worship. It demonstrates a helplessness or submissive posture

Synonym- SUPINE, RECUMBENT

Synonym Explanation- prostrate means lying flat without the energy or power to rest or to lying with face downward especially in obedience or worship. But supine means lying on the back having the face upward. supine shows degree of lethargy or indifference.

Uses-

  • Percy was lying prostrate, his arms outstretched and his eyes closed.
  • After the long hike in the heat, the hikers lay prostrate in the shade, resting and sipping water.
  • The condemned prisoner assumed a prostrate position, hoping for clemency from the judge.

PROSTRATE (Verb)

Meaning- to lie with the face down and arms stretched out, especially in obedience or worship

Uses-

  • They prostrated themselves before the king.

 

PROTAGONIST (Noun) and ANTAGONIST (Noun)

PROTAGONIST (Noun)

Meaning- 1) The main character in a play or book

2) An active supporter of a policy or a movement especially one that is trying to change something.

Uses-

  • Indira Gandhi was main protagonist of the 1971 Liberation war.
  • Anna Hazare was a leading protagonist in the movement for passing Lokpal Bill.
  • Milton Friedman is usually cited as the leading American protagonist of monetarism.

ANTAGONIST (Noun)

Meaning- Someone who is opposing or in conflict with other person.

Synonym- ENEMY, OPPONENT

Uses-

  • Rahul’ s antagonist in the debate was smarter than he was.

Combined Uses-

  • The objective of the antagonist in the story is always to destroy the protagonist.
  • The protagonist had to defend himself against the antagonist.
  • At a recent production of story of the prince and the poor girl, the character of the stepsister who was the antagonist was exaggerated and made the audience laugh; however, the poor girl who was the protagonist in the story was portrayed as gentle and sweet. At a recent production of story of the prince and the poor girl, the character of the stepsister who was the antagonist was exaggerated and made the audience laugh; however, the poor girl who was the protagonist in the story was portrayed as gentle and sweet.

 

PROTOCOL (Noun)

Meaning- 1) A set of rules and guidelines that are needed to be followed by people

2) A document that describes the details of a treaty or formal agreement between two countries. For example- Nagoya protocol, Montreal protocol, Kyoto protocol

Mnemonic trick- famous Nagoya protocol, Montreal protocol are formal agreements signed by all UN member states. Therefore, protocol means formal agreement. A formal agreement contains rules that a country is supposed to follow. We should keep in mind that protocol also means a set of rules and guidelines that are needed to be followed.

Uses-

  • You are following your office etiquette; it means you are following a protocol.
  • Lisa broke the company protocol, when she used the company’ s e-mail to send personal mails to her friends.
  • After the recent blast in the shopping mall, the management ordered a protocol to check every person before entering the mall.
  • In most of the restaurants, the correct safety protocol for employees handling food is to wear a chef’ s hat.

                          

PROTRACT (Verb)

Meaning- to cause something to last a long time or to lengthen something out

Mnemonic trick- The word protract sounds similar to protractor. Protractor is a geometrical device used to protract lines, angles and circles. Therefore, protract means to lengthen something out or to cause something to last a long time.

Synonym- PROLONG, ELONGATE, OUTSTRETCH

Uses-

  • I have no desire to protract the process.
  • The powerhouse project was protracted because of bad management of officers.