CHAPTER 44 on Word Groups

LACONIC (Adj.)

Meaning: Using few words in speech or writing

Use: When Shawn asked Betty why she didn’t come to the project meeting, she gave him a laconic answer that she wasn’t feeling well.

PITHY (Adj.)

Meaning: Using few words in a clear and effective way

Use: Fighting for the future, for all its provocative arguments and pithy language, sometimes borders on the apocalyptic.

SUCCINCT (Adj.)

Meaning: Using few words to state or express an idea

Use: Lorene’s succinct summary at the end of the speech provided the most significant information.

BREVITY (Noun)

Meaning: shortness or conciseness of expression

Use: Brevity is essential when you send a telegram or cablegram; you are charged for every word.

 

 

GIST (Noun)

Meaning: The main point or part

Use: The gist of the lawyer’s argument was that the law was unfair to women.

PITH (Noun)

Meaning: The most important part of something

Use: Today’ s journalists are adept to focus on pith.

CRUX (Noun)

Meaning: The most important point under discussion

Use: The crux of the matter resulted in a problem for the family.

 

 

 

Explanation: Ruminate (verb) means to think deeply. For an animal, ruminate means to bring up and chew again what has already been chewed and swallowed. Mull (verb) means to grind or mix thoroughly. It has second meaning also. It means to ponder. Muse (verb) means to be deep in thinking. Muse (Noun) means a woman who is a source of inspiration for artists.

CONTEMPLATE (Verb)

Meaning: Action of thinking or looking at something attentively

Use: Jack contemplated moving to a bigger city, thinking that he could find a job with a better salary than he had so far in the village where he lived.

PONDER (Verb)

Meaning: Action of thinking or looking at something attentively

Use: Ponder or think about the following over a period of time.

COGITATE (Verb)

Meaning: Action of thinking or looking at something attentively

Use: When James got back to the university dormitory, he sat at his desk and started to cogitate about the science project he was supposed to complete in three days.

CEREBRATE (Verb)

Meaning: Action of thinking or looking at something attentively

Use: James was cerebrating whether to go on vacation this month or next month.

RUMINATE (Verb)

Meaning: 1) To think deeply

2) (For an animal) to bring up and chew gain what has already been chewed and swallowed

Use: Ron was ruminating about which university he would go to long before he graduated from high school.

MULL (Verb)

Meaning: 1) To grind or mix thoroughly

2) To Ponder

Use: The team mulled their chances of success

MUSE (Verb)

Meaning: To be deep in thoughts

Use: Latonya will muse upon the suggestion while she is having her morning coffee.

MUSE (Noun)

Meaning: A woman who is a source of inspiration for artists

Use: Randy’s mother was the muse for his interest in music.

MEDITATE (Verb)

Meaning: To spend time in quiet thought for religious purposes or relaxation

Use: Marion’s friend will take time every day to meditate for an hour during the morning.

CHEW OVER (Verb)

Meaning: To meditate on or to think about reflectively

Use: Yet another senator chewing over the idea of running for president.

 

Explanation: Grate (Verb) means to irritate someone. It has second meaning also. It also means to reduce to small particles by rubbing on something rough. Persecute (Verb) means to annoy someone. It has second meaning also. It means to treat (someone) cruelly or unfairly especially because of race or religious belief. Disgruntle (verb) means to irritate someone. It also means to alienate someone. Miff (verb) and Pique (verb) means to make someone angry. Miff (Noun) and Pique (Noun) means feeling of being annoyed or irritated. Nag (Verb) and Peeve (Verb) means to annoy or irritate someone. Nag (Noun) and Peeve (Noun) means one who irritates. Nettle (Verb) means to make someone angry or to irritate someone. This word has also been covered in series for To make someone angry.

EXASPERATE (Verb)

Meaning: To make someone very angry or annoyed

Use: Constant interruptions will only exasperate the speaker.

GRATE (Verb)

Meaning: 1) To irritate someone

2) To reduce to small particles by rubbing on something rough

Use: While the pasta boiled, Jenifer would grate the cheese for the sauce.

GRATE (Noun)

Meaning: A metal frame with bars across it that is used in a fireplace

NETTLE (Noun)

Meaning: A plant covered with stinging hairs

NETTLE (Verb)

Meaning: To make someone angry

Use: The mayor’ s recent actions have nettled some members of the community.

PESTER (Verb)

Meaning: To annoy or bother (someone) in a repeated way

Use: Leave me alone! Stop pestering me!

VEX (Verb)

Meaning: To annoy or worry someone

Use: Jimmy was vexing his sister by refusing to let her see the TV program that she wanted to watch.

PERSECUTE (Verb)

Meaning: 1) To constantly annoy or bother (someone)

2) To treat (someone) cruelly or unfairly especially because of race or religious belief

Use: The regime was known to constantly persecute those who fought against it during the uprising.

DISGRUNTLE (Verb)

Meaning: 1) To annoy someone.

2) To alienate someone.

Use: The noises made by the students in the classroom were disgruntling the teacher.

MIFF (Verb)

Meaning: To make someone angry

Use: His comments about minority groups miffed many of us.

MIFF (Noun)

Meaning: Feeling of being annoyed or irritated

Use: “No one asked you!” She retorted, with some miff.

PIQUE (Verb)

Meaning: 1) To make someone angry

2) To cause curiosity or interest

Use: It seems that brightly colored things often pique a young child’s interest.

PIQUE (Noun)

Meaning: Feeling of being annoyed or irritated

Use: Marilyn went into a pique when she didn’t get her way.

NAG (Verb)

Meaning: To annoy someone

Use: Jim’s mother is always nagging him about his hairstyle.

NAG (Noun)

Meaning: One who irritates habitually

PEEVE (Verb)

Meaning: To irritate someone

Use: She is constantly peeved while she is trying to focus on her work.

PEEVE (Noun)

Meaning: Something that annoys someone

Use: One of her peeves is people who are always late.

 

 

Explanation: We covered word Miff (Noun & Verb) and Pique (Noun & Verb) in previous serious also.

UMBRAGE (Noun)

Meaning: A feeling of being offended by what someone has said or done

Use: When Susan’s husband called up and said that he had to work late at the office again, she took umbrage and was very disturbed because she suspected that another woman was involved in his repeated delays in arriving home.

DUDGEON (Noun)

Meaning: State of being irritated or indignant

Use: The woman walked out in high dudgeon when the clerk refused to let her look at some expensive purses simply because she was black; even though she was a millionaire.

MIFF (Verb)

Meaning: To make someone angry

Use: His comments about minority groups miffed many of us.

MIFF (Noun)

Meaning: Feeling of being annoyed or irritated

Use: “No one asked you!” She retorted, with some miff.

PIQUE (Verb)

Meaning: 1) To make someone angry

2) To cause curiosity or interest

Use: It seems that brightly colored things often pique a young child’s interest.

PIQUE (Noun)

Meaning: Feeling of being annoyed or irritated

Use: Marilyn went into a pique when she didn’t get her way.

 

Attempt Sentence Equivalence Test 15

Based on words covered in Chapter 42, Chapter 43, Chapter 44.

Number of questions: 6

Time limit: 10 min.

START TEST

 

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CHAPTER 43 on Word Groups

FELON (Noun)

Meaning: A criminal who has committed a serious crime

Use: The convicted felon was imprisoned for 10 years before his case was reviewed.

MISCREANT (Noun)

Meaning: A person who does something that is illegal or morally wrong

Use:miscreant robbed an elderly lady after she got off the bus and was walking to her apartment.

MISCREANT (Adj.)

Meaning: Behaving criminally

Use: She had never seen so many assassins and miscreants gathered together under the same banner in order to annihilate someone.

ROGUE (Noun)

Meaning: A person who is dishonest or immoral

Use: Trudy’s father was a lovable old rogue and sometimes even a lying old rogue.

ROGUE (Adj.)

Meaning: Corrupt or dishonest

Use: People were complaining about how the rogue police were committing criminal acts.

SCOUNDREL (Noun)

Meaning: A person who is cruel or dishonest

Use: Some scoundrel stole my wallet.

 

 

Explanation: Prone (Adj.) has second meaning also. It means lying with the front of your body facing downward.

VULNERABLE (Adj.)

Meaning: Exposed to being attacked or harmed

Use: Jackie was quite vulnerable and broke out in tears when friends would mention her late husband who died just a few weeks before.

PRONE (Adj.)

Meaning: 1) Likely to suffer from

2) Lying with the front of your body facing downward.

Use: She was prone to sudden fits of anger during which she would lie prone on the floor, screaming and kicking her heels.

SENSITIVE (Adj.)

Meaning: 1) Quick to detect or be affected by slight changes.

2) Easily offended or upset.

Use: Bats are sensitive to sounds that humans can’t hear.

SUSCEPTIBLE (Adj.)

Meaning: Easily affected, influenced or harmed by something.

Use: Some teenagers are sometimes very susceptible to new ways of thinking or of behaving in ways that are unacceptable.

 

 

Explanation: Slack (Adj.) means not stretched or held in tight position. Slack (Adj.) also means careless. Slack (Verb) means to be careless. Slack (Verb) also means to lessen in amount. Derelict (Adj.) means careless or failing to do what should be done. It has second meaning also. It means something abandoned or something no longer cared. Dereliction (Noun) means an act of abandoning something. It has second meaning also. Dereliction (Noun) means the state of being careless or failure to do your duty or job.

LAX (Adj.)

Meaning: Not careful enough

Use: Both parents were lax with their supervision of the children and, as a result, the children often got into mischief.

NEGLIGENT (Adj.)

Meaning: Failing to take proper care of something or someone

Use: Her mother was a negligent housekeeper

REMISS (Adj.)

Meaning: Not showing enough care and attention

Use: He’s terribly remiss in his work.

SLAPDASH (Adj.)

Meaning: Hurried and careless

Use: This slapdash approach to the recording and construction of an album possibly could be financially related.

SLIPSHOD (Adj.)

Meaning: Very careless

Use: As a master craftsman, the carpenter prided himself on never doing slipshod work.

SLACK (Verb)

Meaning: 1) To be careless

2) To lessen in amount

Use: They need to stop slacking and get down to work.

SLACK (Adj.)

Meaning: 1) not stretched or held in tight position.

2) Careless

Use: He accused the government of slack supervision of nuclear technology.

DERELICT (Adj.)

Meaning: 1) careless or failing to do what should be done.

2) something abandoned or something no longer cared.

Use: The police officer was charged with being derelict in his duty when he failed to arrest a man for mistreating his wife.

DERELICTION (Noun)

Meaning: 1) act of abandoning something.

2) state of being careless or failure to do your duty or job

Use: A human derelict is someone who by reason of his/her actions, etc., has been abandoned by respectable people.

 

 

Explanation: Lambent (Adj.) means softly shining.

LUMINOUS (Adj.)

Meaning: Producing or seeming to produce light

Use: The night sky was the most luminous Jeff had seen during his vacation, simply glittering with starlight.

SCINTILLATING (Adj.)

Meaning: Brilliantly lively or very impressive or interesting

Use Scintillating conversation with a scintillating personality.

REFULGENT (Adj.)

Meaning: Shinning

Use: Crystal chandeliers and gilded walls made the opera house a refulgent setting for the concert.

RESPLENDENT (Adj.)

Meaning: Very bright and attractive

Use: The colorful crackers looking resplendent on a moonless night was an impressive work.

EFFULGENT (Adj.)

Meaning: Brilliant

Use: The exceptional effulgence of the harvest moon is always a striking sight.

LAMBENT (Adj.)

Meaning: Shinning softly

Use: Jan and Sam could see lambent sunlight glinting off the waves as they walked along the beach.

 

 

AFFABLE (Adj.)

Meaning: Friendly and easy to talk to

Use: As a supervisor, Mike Black was always affable with his subordinates in that he was always civil and courteous when he had conversations with them.

AMICABLE (Adj.)

Meaning: Friendly and pleasant

Use: If wars are to end, nations must learn amicable means of settling their disputes.

AMIABLE (Adj.)

Meaning: Friendly and pleasant

Use: Amiable neighbors help make a house a home.

GENIAL (Adj.)

Meaning: Friendly and cheerful

Use: This restaurant is famous and popular because of a genial proprietor, who tries to make everyone happy.

CORDIAL (Adj.)

Meaning: Politely pleasant and friendly

Use: Germany and the United States have maintained cordial relations since World War II.

CONGENIAL (Adj.)

Meaning: 1) Very Friendly

2) Pleasant and enjoyable

Use: Sharon told Mike that she found it a very congenial and agreeable atmosphere in which to work with him and his staff.

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CHAPTER 42 on Word Groups

Explanation: Demure (Adj.) means polite and not showy or flashy. Prim (Adj.) means formal and proper. It has second meaning also. It also means easily shocked or upset by rude behavior. Propriety (Noun) means proper behavior.

DECOROUS (Adj.)

Meaning: Correct and polite in a particular situation

Use: Jacob has always been considered a polite and decorous neighbor until he was heard yelling curses and vulgar words at his wife one evening.

DEMURE (Adj.)

Meaning: Polite and not showy or not fleshy

Use: The governess, or woman who was employed to teach and to take care of little Susie, seemed to be quite reserved and demure, but she was very watchful and protective of her young child while they were in the playground or any other place.

PRIM (Adj.)

Meaning: 1) Formal and proper

2) Easily shocked or upset by rude behavior

Use: She had the look of a prim and proper lady of the Victorian times, with all her tended hairs.

PROPRIETY (Noun)

Meaning: Proper behavior

Use: Randal’s behavior would not offend the propriety of the professional organization to which he hoped to belong.

SEEMLY (Adj.)

Meaning: Proper and appropriate for the situation

Use: For most practical purposes the exclusion is one of form, not substance, and is based on local cultural notions of what is seemly.

 

 

BEDLAM (Noun)

Meaning: Very noisy and confused state

Use: There was so much bedlam in kindergarten, that the teacher couldn’t be heard when she tried to talk to them!

PANDEMONIUM (Noun)

Meaning: Uproar

Use: When the ships collided in the harbor, pandemonium broke out among the passengers.

TUMULTUOUS (Adj.)

Meaning: Involving a lot of violence, confusion or disorder

Use: After the university administration rejected the students’ proposal to stop an increase in fees, there were tumultuous protests on the campus.

TURMOIL (Noun)

Meaning: A state of confusion or disorder

Use: The classroom was full of turmoil; as, the extremely loud children were standing on tables, chairs were turned over, the blackboard was covered with drawings, etc. because the teacher came a half hour late to the class!

TURBULENCE (Noun)

Meaning: A state of violence, confusion or disorder

Use: Avoiding excessive turbulence generated around moving objects; such as, aircraft, which can make their motion inefficient and difficult to control, is a major factor in aerodynamic designing.

TUMULT (Noun)

Meaning: A state of noisy confusion or disorder

Use: His mind was in a series of tumults revealing his emotional disturbances.

 

 

Explanation: Bombastic, Pompous and Braggart differ in meaning slightly. They mean talking in a confident way to impress others

ARROGANT (Adj.)

Meaning: Showing the insulting attitude of people who think that they are better or smarter than other people

Use: The arrogant attorney was given a warning by the judge to take it easy when cross-examining the witness.

CONCEITED (Adj.)

Meaning: Having or showing excessive pride in yourself

Use: The author of the book was a brilliant creator of novels; however, he was also considered a very conceited compiler of literature by many other writers.

EGOTISTICAL (Adj.)

Meaning: Having or showing excessively proud behavior

Use: He was vain, egotistical, boorish and gloriously insensitive.

HAUGHTY (Adj.)

Meaning: Showing the insulting attitude of people who think that they are better or smarter than other people.

Use:haughty person treats other people as if they are inferior and not worth being around

HUBRIS (Noun)

Meaning: Excessive pride and self-confidence

Use: George started his business career as a pleasant clerk; however, by the time he became the CEO of the company years later, he showed signs of hubris which would lead to his downfall.

CONDESCENDING (Adj.)

Meaning: Behaving as if you are better than other people

Use: The customer was condescending to the saleswoman who was trying very hard to be polite and to provide the best service possible.

OSTENTATIOUS (Adj.)

Meaning: Showing excessive display

Use: Trump’ s latest casino in Atlantic City is the most ostentatious gambling place in the East.

SUPERCILIOUS (Adj.)

Meaning: Showing the insulting attitude of people who think that they are better or smarter than other people.

Use: Her mother eyed my clothes with a supercilious attitude.

VAINGLORIOUS (Adj.)

Meaning: Showing too much pride in your abilities or achievements

Use: James was a vainglorious athlete who bragged about his basketball talents whenever he was interviewed on TV or the radio.

BOMBASTIC (Adj.)

Meaning: Speaking or writing to sound important or impressive

Use: While on the campaign trail, Senator Smith frequently made bombastic speeches.

POMPOUS (Adj.)

Meaning: Speaking or writing to sound important or impressive

Use: The university newspaper expressed some of the students’ feelings that there was a pompous professor who seemed to think that he was much too qualified to teach students who had such a minimal amount of intelligence.

BRAGGART (Noun)

Meaning: A person who brags a lot or one who speaks a lot to sound important or impressive

Use: James was such a braggart that he really disturbed people because he couldn’t stop talking about winning the tennis match against a former professional player.

 

 

Explanation: Bravado (Noun) means confident or brave talk or behavior that is intended to impress other people. Swagger (Noun) means a way of walking or behaving that shows a lot of confidence. Swagger (verb) means to walk with confidence. Swagger (Adj.) means showing off.

BRAVADO (Noun)

Meaning: Confident or brave talk or behavior that is intended to impress other people

Use: I remembered his youthful bravado.

SWAGGER (Verb)

Meaning: To walk with confidence

Use: He swaggered along the corridor.

SWAGGER (Noun)

Meaning: A way of walking or behaving that shows lot of confidence

Use: After years of hard-earned success on Broadway, the brothers arrived in Hollywood with an arrogant swagger.

SWAGGER (Adj.)

Meaning: Showing off

Use: They strolled around the camp with an exaggerated swagger.

 

 

Explanation: Declaim (Verb) means to say (something) in usually a loud and formal way. Declamation (Noun) means stated loudly and in a formal way.

BRAGGADOCIO (Noun)

Meaning: Exaggerated talk of someone who is trying to sound very important or brave

Use: Tina, the new girl in the biology class, had a showy kind of character and seemed to be a braggadocio who was telling the other students about the yacht her parents had and of their traveling back and forth on the coast, but none of it was true!

GASCONADE (Noun)

Meaning: Exaggerated talk of someone who is trying to sound very important or brave

Use: Joe’s grandmother was always making a lot of gasconades about him whenever anyone asked her about how he was doing as a student at the university.

RODOMONTADE (Noun)

Meaning: Boasting or bragging speech

Use: For all of its jingoistic rodomontade, the government had no thought-out plan for the war and its aftermath.

COCKALORUM (Noun)

Meaning: Boastful talk

Use: A boxer who was as famous for his prefight cockalorum as for his knockouts in the ring.

FANFARONADE (Noun)

Meaning: Empty boasting

Use: All his talk of how he would easily win the boxing match turned out to be so much fanfaronade.

GRANDILOQUENCE (Noun)

Meaning: Extravagantly pompous or bombastic style especially in language

Use: A heavyweight champion who was famous for his entertaining grandiloquence prior to every match.

DECLAMATION (Noun)

Meaning: Stated loudly, confidently and in a formal way

Use: The local newspaper reported on the declamations of the speaker who had radical and persuasive viewpoints on the subject of climate change.

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CHAPTER 41 on Word Groups

FRUGAL (Adj.)

Meaning: 1) having prudence in avoiding waste.

2) people who find ways of making things useful that others just throw away.

Use: Frugal people try to avoid wasting things by reusing items that most people throw away, their frugality save their money.

THRIFTY (Adj.)

Meaning: 1) having prudence in avoiding waste.

2) people who find ways of making things useful that others just throw away.

Use: Thrifty people sell their old mobile instead of throwing away; so, frugality is an unwillingness to waste things.

SCRIMPING (Noun)

Meaning: Spending as little money as you can.

Use: I have been scrimping and saving for my study abroad dream.

 

 

PAUCITY (Noun)

Meaning: a small amount of something or an amount that is less than what is needed or wanted.

Use: There was a paucity of information when Sheila asked that where she could get a loan to buy a new car.

DEARTH (Noun)

Meaning: The state or condition of not having enough of something.

Use: There is a growing dearth of rice in Asia.

SCARCITY (Noun)

Meaning: a small amount of something or an amount that is less than what is needed or wanted.

Use: The scarcity of good restaurants around here is surprising.

 

 

SACRILEGE (Noun)

Meaning: The act of treating a holy thing or place without respect.

Use: Hindu consider it sacrilege to wear shoes inside a temple.

BLASPHEMY (Noun)

Meaning: The act of treating a holy thing or place without respect.

Use: In 2010, Advertisement agency, produced images of Prophet Mohammad in an episode that featured the Prophet as a bear mascot. Angered by the blasphemy, one Islamic website threatened the producer for what they deemed as a high level of disrespect for the Prophet.

PROFANATION (Noun)

Meaning: The act of treating a holy thing or place without respect.

Use: The First book of the Maccabees tells of the profanation of the temple of Jerusalem in 167 B.C.

DESECRATION (Noun)

Meaning: The act of treating a holy thing or place without respect.

Use: The communicants were aghast at the desecration of the altar.

IRREVERENCE (Noun)

Meaning: The act of treating a holy thing or place without respect.

Use: Some people in the audience were amused by the irreverence of the comedian’ s jokes about the pope; others felt offended by his lack of respect for their faith.

IMPIETY (Noun)

Meaning: Lack of respect for god.

Use: We are to renounce impiety and worldly passions.

DEFILEMENT (Noun)

Meaning: 1) act of making something unclean or impure.

2) To corrupt the purity or sanctity of something.

Use: Swimming in the lake is banned until the defilement is identified and neutralized.

 

 

PULCHRITUDE (Noun)

Meaning: beauty, especially a woman’ s beauty

Use: Erin’ s pulchritude was legendary bringing admires from near and end.

COMELINESS (Noun)

Meaning: beauty, especially a woman’ s beauty

Use: She is proud of her comeliness.

AESTHETIC (Adj.)

Meaning: 1) A reference to the sensitivity and appreciation of art and beauty.

2) A reference to something beautiful or attractive.

Use: There are economical as well as aesthetic reasons for making kitchen gardens at home.

AESTHETIC (Noun)

Meaning: 1) The artistic or beautiful qualities of something.

2) A set of ideas or opinions about beauty or art.

Use: The aesthetics of the gemstones.

 

 

ACME (Noun)

Meaning: The highest point of achievement or excellence.

Use: The acme of the Indian cricket team was its victory in the world cup.

APEX (Noun)

Meaning: The highest point of achievement or excellence.

Use: Daniel is suffering from diabetes. Yesterday he ate chocolates. I think that his sugar level is at its apex.

APOGEE (Noun)

Meaning: The highest point of achievement or excellence.

Use: Messi has reached the apogee of his career. But he is still avid.

ZENITH (Noun)

Meaning: 1) The highest point of achievement or excellence.

2) The highest point reached in the sky by the sun, moon etc.

Use: Being elected mayor was the zenith of Bill’s political career.

PINNACLE (Noun)

Meaning: 1) The highest point of achievement or excellence.

2) A high mountaintop.

Use: “She was at the pinnacle of her career.”

SUMMIT (Noun)

Meaning: 1) The highest point of achievement or excellence.

2) A meeting or series of meetings between the leaders of two or more governments.

Use: Joe is now at the summit of his career as a salesman for his company.

 

Attempt Sentence Equivalence Test 14

Based on words covered in Chapter 39, Chapter 40, Chapter 41.

Number of questions: 6

Time limit: 10 min.

START TEST

 

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CHAPTER 40 on Word Groups

Explanation: Tarnish means thin layer on the surface of the metal which makes metal look dull. Defile (Noun) means narrow passage through the mountain. Blemish (Verb), Taint (Verb), Tarnish (Verb) and Defile (Verb) implies damaging the quality of something. Debase (Verb), Sully (Verb) and Besmirch (Verb) implies ruining the reputation of someone.

BLEMISH (Verb)

Meaning: To make (something) imperfect or less beautiful

Use: Instead it has age marks, blemishes, and even a small spot or two with a brownish patina look.

BLEMISH (Noun)

Meaning: A mark that makes something imperfect or less beautiful

Use: I am an atheist and I won’ t choose to have my blemished by anyone taking the freedom to meddle with my choices in life, neither with my memory afterlife.

TAINT (Verb)

Meaning: To make (something) imperfect or less beautiful

Use: Pollution from Asia can taint the air along the West Coast of the U.S, said scientists on Friday at a meeting of the American Association for the advancement of science.

TAINT (Noun)

Meaning: Something that causes a person or thing to be thought of as bad, dishonest etc.

Use That rare political campaign that was not marred by the taint of false accusations.

TARNISH (Verb)

Meaning: To damage or ruin the good quality of (something, such as person’ s reputation etc.)

Use: His regime had not been tarnished by human rights abuses.

TARNISH (Noun)

Meaning: thin layer on surface of metal which makes metal look dull

Use: A polish that removes tarnish.

DEFILE (Verb)

Meaning: To make something unclean or impure

Use: The town sewer was known to defile the river with sewage.

DEFILE (Noun)

Meaning: narrow passage through mountain

Use: The train went through the defile of the mountains as it progressed to the destination.

DEBASE (Verb)

Meaning: To lower the value or reputation of (someone or something)

Use: The mayor of Tom’s city debased himself by lying to his citizens about his financial dealings with a company.

SULLY (Verb)

Meaning: To damage or ruin the good quality of (something)

Use: He felt that it was beneath his dignity to sully his hands in such menial labor.

BESMIRCH (Verb)

Meaning: To cause harm or damage to (the reputation of something or someone)

Use: The scandalous remarks in the newspaper besmirch the reputations of every member of the society.

VITIATE (Verb)

Meaning: To make (something) less effective or to ruin or spoil (something)

Use: The impact of the film was vitiated by poor acting.

 

SYMPOSIUM (Noun)

Meaning: A formal meeting at which experts discuss a particular topic

Use: Professors and graduate students attended the symposium.

COLLOQUIUM (Noun)

Meaning: A formal meeting at which experts discuss a particular topic

Use: Recently attended a daylong colloquium on new methods of chromatography.

 

 

SHELTERED (Adj.)

Meaning: Screened or hidden from view or living in seclusion

Use: Climbers sheltered in a cave during the storm.

SECLUDED (Adj.)

Meaning: Screened or hidden from view or living in seclusion

Use:  Jerome secluded a home deep in the forest where nobody ever goes and lives as a hermit who has no contact with other individuals.

CLOISTERED (Adj.)

Meaning: Separated from rest of the world or living in a cloister

Use: “The artist lead a private, cloistered life in the mountains.”

ISOLATED (Adj.)

Meaning: Separated from others

Use: The town remains a very isolated community.

 

PRODIGAL (Adj.)

Meaning: Anyone who spends funds or money in an excessive or uncontrollable way.

Use: Karl’ s neighbor has nothing left of his inheritance because of his prodigal behavior and excessive way of living.

PROFLIGATE (Adj.)

Meaning: Anyone who spends funds or money in an excessive or uncontrollable way.

Use: During his campaign, the mayor swore to put an end to the government’ s profligate spending.

SPENDTHRIFT (Noun)

Meaning: A person who spends money in a careless or wasteful way.

Use: Easy access to credit encourages people to turn into spendthrifts who shop until they drop.

SQUANDERER (Noun)

Meaning: A person who spends money in a foolish or wasteful way.

Use: Don’ t go down in history as a squanderer, who threw away the country’ s wealth and squandered the opportunity to truly develop our nation.

WASTREL (Noun)

Meaning: A person who wastes time, money etc.

Use: Glenda’s nephew was a wastrel so she refused to include him in her will.

 

 

PARSIMONIOUS (Adj.)

Meaning: very unwilling to spend money

Use: Janita always calculates the money cost of all his activities. She is parsimonious.

STINGY (Adj.)

Meaning: Not liking or wanting to give or spend money.

Use: The company was too stingy to raise salaries.

SKINFLINT (Noun)

Meaning: very unwilling to spend money

Use I am Skinflint. I am afraid that if people refer to my attitude toward spending money.

NIGGARD (Noun)

Meaning: A person who hates to spend money.

Use: His father is a real niggard and refuses to pay her way through college, even though he can easily afford it.

MISER (Noun)

Meaning: A person who hates to spend money.

Use Although David Williams was wealthy, he was a miser who lived a miserable life alone and without any friends.

SCROOGE (Noun)

Meaning: A person who hates to spend money.

Use: Until his redemption, Ebenezer Scrooge is the classic example of a very stingy, heartless Scrooge.

1…………………………………………………. 39 40 41….. 44

 

 

 

CHAPTER 39 on Word Groups

ASTRAY (Adj.)

Meaning: Ofthe right path or route

Use: Damian and Sherie went astray in town and arrived late for their appointment.

AWRY (Adj.)

Meaning: Not working correctly or happening in an expected way

Use: The awry wig that Mary was wearing looked funny with the back part in the front!

ASKEW (Adj.)

Meaning: Not straight or level

Use: Karl’s tie was askew in a picture that was taken for the family album.

AMISS (Adj.)

Meaning: In the wrong way or not correct

Use: Seeing her frown, he wondered if anything were amiss.

DESULTORY (Adj.)

Meaning: Not having a plan or purpose

Use: Mildred was talking in a desultory sequence by jumping from one idea to another one in an illogical way.

 

 

 

Explanation:  Detour (Verb), Veer (Verb), Swerve (Verb), Digress (Verb) means to deviate or to change direction.

DETOUR (Noun)

Meaning: A deviation from a direct course or the usual procedure

Use: We had to make a detour around the heaviest traffic.

DETOUR (Verb)

Meaning: to deviate or to change direction.

Use: The police officer was detouring traffic around the scene of the accident.

VEER (Verb)

Meaning: To change direction

Use: After what seemed an eternity, the wind veered to the east and the storm abated.

SWERVE (Verb)

Meaning: to deviate or to change direction

Use: The car swerved wildly as the driver struggled to regain control of the wheel.

SWERVE (Noun)

Meaning: act of deviating or act of changing direction

Use: The tall and rather narrow little car could not cope with sudden swerves.

DIGRESS (Verb)

Meaning: Deviate from the main subject temporarily

Use: The politician digressed from this topic when someone yelled in opposition to what he was saying.

 

 

 

Explanation: Boar (Noun) means wild pig. Boorish (Adj.) means resembling a boar (as showing insensitivities to other’ s feelings).

BOORISH (Adj.)

Meaning: Rough, bad mannered person

Use:  The boorish conduct of one of the members of Mr. Kline’s psychology class irritated him and the other students.

LOUTISH (Adj.)

Meaning: Rude or aggressive

Use: The loutish bully did not have a whole lot of friends.

CHURLISH (Adj.)

Meaning: Rude or bad mannered

Use: When Sam’s wife asked him why he didn’t eat some spinach during dinner, he replied with a churlish comment: “Because I hate it, that’s why!”

CLOWNISH (Adj.)

Meaning: Unsophisticated, Behaving in a silly or playful way

Use: The clownish antics of some of the teenagers at the wedding reception.

UNCOUTH (Adj.)

Meaning: Lacking good manners

Use: When Clement started to yell at his host at the party, everyone thought he was certainly a very uncouth and uncivilized person.

GAUCHE (Adj.)

Meaning: socially awkward

Use: Mike showed his gauche behavior when he spoke to the president of the company as “Old Buddy”.

SURLY (Adj.)

Meaning: Rude and unfriendly

Use: The neighborhood children were afraid of the surly or unfriendly storekeeper, Mr. Evans.

 

 

 

 

PEEVISH (Adj.)

Meaning: Feeling or showing irritation

Use: The shopper was snappish and rude with the salesclerk.

SPLENETIC (Adj.)

Meaning: Very angry and annoyed

Use: The newspaper publisher’ s splenetic editorials often struck fear into local politicians.

WASPISH (Adj.)

Meaning: Easily annoyed

Use: Extremely waspish, she uses her wit viciously when irritated.

TESTY (Adj.)

Meaning: Become annoyed or angry easily

Use: Maxine has had many experiences with testy people; for example a testy cab driver, a testy refusal by a clerk to help her, and a neighbor who was upset when he accused her of playing opera music too loudly.

SNAPPISH (Adj.)

Meaning: Feeling or showing irritation

Use: Sabina made a snappish remark when the man in the elevator asked her where she was working in the building.

CROTCHETY (Adj.)

Meaning: Often angry and annoyed

Use: None of the students dared to talk back to the crotchety old teacher.

IRASCIBLE (Adj.)

Meaning: Become angry very easily

Use: Dick’s neighbor has an irascible, or irritable and surly, disposition.

GROUCHY (Adj.)

Meaning: Having a bad temper

Use: A lack of sleep would make anyone grouchy.

CHOLERIC (Adj.)

Meaning: Made angry easily

Use: David’s red face gave away the choleric nature of his personality.

CANTANKEROUS (Adj.)

Meaning: Often angry and annoyed

Use: Sometimes Nancy’s cantankerous boss is easily annoyed and becomes angry when the members of his staff don’t do their assignments as quickly as he wants them to.

PETULANT (Adj.)

Meaning: Easily annoyed or easily become angry

Use: When Jan doesn’t get her way at home, she usually gets very petulant with her parents.

PETTISH (Adj.)

Meaning: Feeling or showing irritation

Use: A pettish baby who always seemed to be crying.

GRUMPY (Adj.)

Meaning: Easily annoyed or angered

Use: I was feeling grumpy after my long fight.

CURMUDGEON (Noun)

Meaning: A person who is easily annoyed or angered

Use: Brandon’s neighbor is a lonely old curmudgeon who is unhappy that her children don’t come to visit her more often.

 

 

 

Explanation:  Plague (Noun) means a disease that causes death and that spreads quickly to a large number of people. Plague (Verb) means to cause continuous trouble.

BESET (Verb)

Meaning: To cause problems or difficulties for (someone or something)

Use: Many vexing problems beset the American public-school system.

BELEAGUER (Verb)

Meaning: To cause constant or repeated trouble for (a person, business etc.)

Use: The lack of funds that beleaguers schools.

PLAGUE (Noun)

Meaning: a disease that causes death and that spreads quickly to large number of people

Use: The country was hit by a plague of natural disasters that year.

PLAGUE (Verb)

Meaning: To cause constant or repeated trouble, illness etc. for (someone or something)

Use: Crime plagues the inner city.

1….. 38 39 40 44

 

 

CHAPTER 38 on Word Groups

Explanation:  Corroborate (Verb) deviates slightly. It means to support or help prove (a statement, theory etc.). Bolster (Noun) means a long, firm pillow.

BOLSTER (Verb)

Meaning: To give support to (something)

Use: More wooden structures are needed to bolster the roof of the building.

BOLSTER (Noun)

Meaning: A long, firm pillow.

BUTTRESS (Verb)

Meaning: To support, strengthen or defend (something)

Use: The treaty will buttress the cause of peace.

BUTTRESS (Noun)

Meaning: A structure built against a wall in order to support or strengthen it.

Use: The remnant of a long-disused church building, it was built out of solid stone with massive buttresses supporting long, high walls.

FORTIFY (Verb)

Meaning: 1) To strengthen (a place) by building military defenses

2) To make (someone or something) stronger

Use: “The walls, ditches, and ramparts will all need to be fortified.”

UNDERGIRD (Verb)

Meaning: To support or strengthen (something)

Use: The theory of evolution undergirds virtually all of modern biology.

UNDERPIN (Verb)

Meaning: To support or strengthen (something)

Use: A wall underpinned by metal beams.

REINFORCE (Verb)

Meaning: 1) To make something stronger

2) To strengthen a military force with additional personnel

Use: The captain sent out another squad to reinforce the troops.

CORROBORATE (Verb)

Meaning: to support or help prove (a statement, theory etc.)

Use: The independent research from the two scientists appeared to corroborate the cause of the disease.

 

 

Explanation:  Sovereign (Noun) means independent. Sovereign (Noun) has second meaning also. It means king or queen who is supreme ruler. It has third meaning also. It also means British gold coin that was used in past. Latitude (Noun) means a distance of a place in direction of North or south of the equator. Latitude (Noun) also means independence.

AUTONOMY (Noun)

Meaning: The power or right of a country, group etc. to govern itself.

Use: A certain country was granted autonomy after the war and so it became an independent nation.

SOVEREIGNTY (Noun)

Meaning: A country’ s independent authority and the right to govern itself

Use: Neither Spain nor Guatemala ever exercised effective sovereignty over the area.

VOLITION (Noun)

Meaning: The power to make your own choices or decisions

Use: She selected this dress of her own volition.

LATITUDE (Noun)

Meaning: 1) Freedom to choose how to act or what to do.

2) distance of a place in direction of North or south of the equator

Use: As a teacher, Jill was allowed a certain amount of leeway or latitude in deciding what methods and technical devices she could use in her classes at school.

 

 

Explanation:  Balk (or Baulk) means to hesitate to accept. Grudge (Verb) means to do something in a reluctant way. It has second meaning also. It also means to dislike or feel angry at someone or something.

BALKING (Adj.)

Meaning: hesitating to accept or refusing to do what someone else wants you to do

Use: Balking horse would not jump the fence.

GRUDGING (Adj.)

Meaning: said, done or given in an unwilling or doubtful way

Use: We received only grudging support from the mayor despite his earlier promises of aid.

RELUCTANT (Adj.)

Meaning: Feeling or showing doubt about doing something

Use: “The boys were reluctant to socialize with the new student.”

LOATH (Adj.)

Meaning: Not wanting or willing to do something

Use: Marla was loath to borrow the money from her friend even though she wanted to buy the new shoes.

 

 

IMMURE (Verb)

Meaning: To enclose within walls or to imprison

Use:  Diana’s brother was immured in jail for driving while intoxicated.

IMPRISON (Verb)

Meaning: To put (someone) in prison

Use: He has threatened to imprison his political opponents.

INCARCERATE (Verb)

Meaning: To put (someone) in prison

Use:  The police plan to incarcerate the drunken man overnight to prevent any conflicts on the street.

 

 

INVETERATE (Adj.)

Meaning: 1) Always or often doing something specified

2) Always or often happening or existing

Use: She is an inveterate smoker and cannot break the habit.

CHRONIC (Adj.)

Meaning: 1) Happening or existing frequently

2) Always or often doing something specified

Use: Mike’s friend was a chronic liar to such a degree that even when he told the truth no one believed him.

HABITUAL (Adj.)

Meaning: Doing something regularly or repeatedly

Use: “Singing in the shower is one of Hank’s habitual activities”.

 

Attempt Sentence Equivalence Test 13

Based on words covered in Chapter 35, Chapter 36, Chapter 37, Chapter 38.

Number of questions: 9

Time limit: 15 min.

START TEST

 

1….. 37 38 39 …………………………………………………………44

 

 

CHAPTER 37 on Word Groups

Explanation:  Founder (Noun) means one who founds something. Founder (Verb) means to start experiencing failure or (of a boat or ship) to sink.

FALTER (Verb)

Meaning: 1) To stop being strong or successful.

2) To move or speak hesitantly.

Use: Jones was weak from hunger and his footsteps were faltering as he walked home.

FOUNDER (Verb)

Meaning: To start experiencing failure or (of a boat or ship) to sink.

Use: After hitting the submerged iceberg, the Titanic started taking in water rapidly and soon foundered.

FOUNDER (Noun)

Meaning: One who founds something

Use: As the son of the company’s founder, he is expected to become the CEO one of these days.

 

 

Explanation:  Totter (Verb), Stagger (Verb), Wobble (Verb) and Stumble (Verb) means to walk unsteadily or to be hesitant or unsure about doing something. Totter (Noun), Stagger (Noun), Wobble (Noun) and Stumble (Noun) means an act of walking unsteadily or act of hesitating. Stagger (Verb) has second meaning also. Stagger (Verb) also means to confuse someone.

TOTTER (Verb)

Meaning: to walk unsteadily or to be hesitant or unsure about doing something

Use: On unsteady feet, the drunk tottered down the hill to the nearest bar.

STAGGER (Verb)

Meaning: 1) to walk unsteadily or to be hesitant or unsure about doing something

2) to confuse someone

Use: “After he sprained his ankle, he was barely able to stagger back to the bench in the park.”

STAGGER (Noun)

Meaning: act of walking unsteadily or act of hesitating

Use: He walked with a slight stagger.

WOBBLE (Verb)

Meaning: to walk unsteadily or to be hesitant or unsure about doing something

Use: The boy was wobbling along on his bicycle.

WOBBLE (Noun)

Meaning: act of walking unsteadily or act of hesitating

Use: He parodied my wobble across the stage.

STUMBLE (Verb)

Meaning: to walk unsteadily or to be hesitant or unsure about doing something

Use: “It is difficult to walk on the brick street and Kathryn is afraid that she is going to stumble.”

STUMBLE (Noun)

Meaning: act of walking unsteadily or act of hesitating

Use: “Because the horse cast a shoe, its walk was more like a stumble.”

 

 

Explanation:  Shiver (Verb), Tremble (Verb), Quiver (Verb), Shudder (Verb) and Judder (Verb) means to shake because of fear or nervousness. Shiver (Noun), Tremble (Noun), Quiver (Noun), Shudder (Noun) and Judder (Noun) means an act of shaking.

SHIVER (Verb)

Meaning: to shake because of fear or nervousness

Use: He was shivering in the snow.

SHIVER (Noun)

Meaning: act of shaking

Use: Meredith felt a shiver of fear.

TREMBLE (Verb)

Meaning: to shake because of fear or nervousness

Use: “They felt the house tremble as the train roared by.”

TREMBLE (Noun)

Meaning: act of shaking

Use: With a tremble, she ventured out into the snow.

QUIVER (Verb)

Meaning: to shake because of fear or nervousness

Use: The leaves on the trees started to quiver when the breeze passed through the garden.

QUIVER (Noun)

Meaning: act of shaking

Use: The artist used the quill from the porcupine to decorate the quiver for the arrows which the hunter would use.

SHUDDER (Verb)

Meaning: to shake because of fear or nervousness

Use: “It was so cold that she started to shudder and could not stop until she went inside to get warm.”

SHUDDER (Noun)

Meaning: act of shaking

Use: “The man felt a shudder go up to his spine when he thought of what could have happened if he had missed his plane.”

JUDDER (Verb)

Meaning: to shake because of fear or nervousness

Use: The engine began to judder alarmingly just a few miles outside of Brighton.

JUDDER (Noun)

Meaning: act of shaking

Use: He had noticed her shaking and the slight judder in her voice as she finished her story.

 

 

Explanation:  Mercurial (Noun) means something related to mercury.

CAPRICIOUS (Adj.)

Meaning: Changing often and quickly

Use: Shirley’s such a capricious mother that her son doesn’t know how she’ll react when he tells her that he and his girlfriend are engaged.

WHIMSICAL (Adj.)

Meaning: Not serious or showing sudden changes in mood

Use: Many of the pieces have come from his own personal collection- which reveals his witty and whimsical sense of humor.

FREAKISH (Adj.)

Meaning: Very strange or abnormal

Use: I had a freakish roommate in college who once decided to drive all the way to Canada on the spur of the movement.

FICKLE (Adj.)

Meaning: Changing often

Use: Leo’s fickle behavior is a disturbing point for his fiancée’s father.

MERCURIAL (Adj.)

Meaning: Changing moods quickly and often

Use: ‘You have the most mercurial personality I have ever met,’ he stated.

MERCURIAL (Noun)

Meaning: Related to mercury or chemical-containing mercury

IMPULSIVE (Adj.)

Meaning: Done suddenly and without planning

Use: She’ s impulsive and often does things that she later regrets.

IRRESOLUTE (Adj.)

Meaning: Not certain or resolute about what to do

Use: Once you have made your decision, don’ t waver, a leader should never appear irresolute.

VACILLATING (Adj.)

Meaning: To repeatedly change your opinions or desires.

Use: Yesterday Hank seemed to be so sure about where he would be going this weekend, but today he is vacillating as to whether he will visit his mother or go to the football game.

 

 

ERRATIC (Adj.)

Meaning: Acting, moving or changing in ways that are not expected or usual

Use: Tracking the flight of the butterfly indicated its flight was most erratic.

ARBITRARY (Adj.)

Meaning: Not seeming to be based on a reason or plan

Use:  The supervisor made an unplanned and arbitrary decision to cancel the meeting this afternoon.

INCONSISTENT (Adj.)

Meaning: Not continuing to happen or develop in the same way

Use: The pain has been inconsistent.

DESULTORY (Adj.)

Meaning: Not having a plan or purpose

Use: Mildred was talking in a desultory sequence by jumping from one idea to another one in an illogical way.

HAPHAZARD (Adj.)

Meaning: Having no plan, order or direction

Use: Something that is done in a haphazard manner is not using a system or any regular procedure.

1….. 36 37 38 …………………………………………………………44

 

CHAPTER 36 on Word Groups

Explanation:  Evict (Verb) means to force someone (especially a tenant) to leave a place or property.

EXPEL (Verb)

Meaning: 1) To force (someone) to leave a place or organization

2) To push or force (something) out

Use: “The university will be expelling students who refused to attend their classes and to complete their assignments.”

EJECT (Verb)

Meaning: To force (someone) to leave or to push (something) out

Use: The pilot ejected when his plane caught fire.

EVICT (Verb)

Meaning: to force someone (especially a tenant) to leave a place or property.

Use: His landlord has threatened to evict him if he does not pay the rent soon.

EXTRUDE (Verb)

Meaning: To force, press or push (something) out

Use: Maggie was extruding toothpaste from the tube on her toothbrush so she could brush her teeth.

 

 

OSTRACIZE (Verb)

Meaning: To not allow (someone) to be included in a group

Use: “After he made so many vulgar remarks, he was ostracized as a talk-show host.”

SHUN (Verb)

Meaning: To avoid or reject

Use: He was shunned publicly by his girlfriend.

SNUB (Verb)

Meaning: To ignore (someone) in an insulting way

Use: He snubbed the anchor.

 

 

ALIENATE (Verb)

Meaning: To cause (someone) to be no longer friendly or to cause (someone) to feel that he or she no longer belongs to a particular group.

Use: “People with such behavior often feel alienated from society.”

ESTRANGE (Verb)

Meaning: To cause (someone) to be no longer friendly or to cause (someone) to feel that he or she no longer belongs to a particular group.

Use: She estranged several of her coworkers when she let her promotion go to her head.

DISGRUNTLE (Verb)

Meaning: To make someone angry or dissatisfied

Use: The students were disgruntled because they couldn’t access the online dictionaries.

DISAFFECT (Verb)

Meaning: To make someone dissatisfied and no longer loyal

Use: It was a military plot by disaffected elements in the army not by the mercenaries.

 

 

Explanation: Apprehend (verb) means to understand something. It has second meaning also. It also means to arrest or catch someone for a crime. Assimilate (Verb) means to understand something. It also has second meaning also. Assimilate (Verb) also means to absorb someone into a larger group.

APPREHEND (Verb)

Meaning: 1) To notice and understand something

2) To arrest (someone) for a crime

Use: “The police officer apprehended the robber just as he was leaving the scene of the crime.”

ASSIMILATE (Verb)

Meaning: 1) To understand something

2) To absorb someone into a larger group

Use:  The new arrivals assimilated easily and quickly into their new culture.

COMPREHEND (Verb)

Meaning: To understand (something, such as a difficult or complex subject)

Use: Jimmy couldn’t comprehend the advanced textbook that was being used in his class.

CONSTRUE (Verb)

Meaning: To understand (an action, event, remark etc.) in a particular way.

Use: “Any change in our plan for the budget would be construed as indecision.”

FATHOM (Verb)

Meaning: To understand something

Use: I find his motives impossible to fathom; in fact, I am totally clueless about what goes on in his mind.

DECIPHER (Verb)

Meaning: To succeed in understanding

Use: I could not decipher the doctor’ s handwriting.

 

 

Explanation:  Nominal means existing as something in name only. For example: <Her title of Vice president had been nominal only>. It has second meaning also. Nominal means very small in amount.

FIGUREHEAD (Noun)

Meaning: A person who is called the head but who has no real power

Use: The ceremonial king or queen is a figurehead of a country and he or she can represent it, while others have the power to make actual governmental decisions.

NOMINAL (Adj.)

Meaning: 1) Existing as something in name only.

2) Very small in amount

Use: Thailand remained nominal independence under Japanese military occupation.

TITULAR (Adj.)

Meaning: Having an important title but not having the power

Use: “The king was the titular head of the country; however, the prime minister had the political power.”

 

1….. 35 36 37 …………………………………………………………44

 

CHAPTER 35 on Word Groups

Explanation:  Surmise (Or conjecture) (Noun) means thought, idea or opinion. Surmise (Or conjecture) (Verb), Deduce (Verb), Extrapolate (Verb) and Reckon (Verb) means to guess, infer or to form an opinion.

SURMISE (Verb)

Meaning: to guess, infer or to form an opinion.

Use: Greg stated, “Do not surmise that Walter can swim just because he likes to exercise in the swimming pool.”

SURMISE (Noun)

Meaning: Thought, idea or opinion

Use: All these observations remain to surmise.

CONJECTURE (Verb)

Meaning: to guess, infer or to form an opinion.

Use: He conjectured the existence of an otherwise unknown feature.

CONJECTURE (Noun)

Meaning: Thought, idea or opinion

Use: The book Mary was reading regarding the old house next door was only conjecture, and it didn’t pertain to facts of any kind since there was no reliable knowledge or data about it at all.

DEDUCE (Verb)

Meaning: to guess, infer or to form an opinion

Use: Based on the forensic evidence, the police officer was able to deduce that the criminal was a man.

EXTRAPOLATE (Verb)

Meaning: to guess, infer or to form an opinion

Use: Rex is still extrapolating to see if he qualifies for the job he hopes to have in the coming days.

RECKON (Verb)

Meaning: to guess, infer or to form an opinion

Use: Jewell’s wages were reckoned by the number of hours that she worked.

 

 

 

 

PUTATIVE (Adj.)

Meaning: Generally believed to be something

Use: “He was considered to be the putative father of the child.”

CONJECTURAL (Adj.)

Meaning: Based on idea or guess

Use: A necessarily conjectural account of Shakespeare’ s life, since there is so little hard information.

HYPOTHETICAL (Adj.)

Meaning: Involving or based on a suggested idea or theory

Use: Suppose you are accepted by Harvard, Stanford, and Yale. Which graduate school will you choose to attend? Remember, this is only a hypothetical situation.

SPECULATIVE (Adj.)

Meaning: Based on guesses or ideas about might be true

Use: His conclusions are highly speculative.

 

Explanation:  Slight (Adj.), Minuscule (Adj.), Infinitesimal (Adj.) and Diminutive (Adj.) means very small. Slight (Verb) means to insult someone. Slight (Noun) means an act of insulting someone. Diminutive (Noun) means shortened informal form of a name.

SLIGHT (Adj.)

Meaning: Very small in degree or amount

Use: “They had a slight acquaintance and so they could not say that they were friends.”

SLIGHT (Verb)

Meaning: To insult someone

Use: She slighted a guest.

SLIGHT (Noun)

Meaning: Act of insulting

Use: Refused to respond to their petty slights.

MINUSCULE (Adj.)

Meaning: Very small

Use: Why should I involve myself in a project with so minuscule a chance for success?

INFINITESIMAL (Adj.)

Meaning: Very small

Use: “Even though the infinitesimal speck Marie had in her eye was quickly removed, it had been feeling like a boulder because it was so painful.”

DIMINUTIVE (Adj.)

Meaning: Very small

Use: The diminutive suffixes “-Ette” and “-ling.”

DIMINUTIVE (Noun)

Meaning: shortened informal form of a name

 

 

Explanation:  Coerce (Verb), Compel (Verb), Goad (Verb) and Dragoon (Verb) means to force someone to do something. Goad (Noun) means someone or something that urges or forces someone to do something. Dragoon (Noun) means a member of a certain British regiment.

Extort (Verb) deviates slightly. Extort (verb) means to get something by using force.

COERCE (Verb)

Meaning: to force someone to do something

Use: Thomas, who was quite lazy at home and had nothing really to do, was coerced into getting a job by his wife.

COMPEL (Verb)

Meaning: to force someone to do something

Use:  The court sent a notice that would compel a woman to appear as a witness during the trial.

GOAD (Verb)

Meaning: to force someone to do something

Use: Andre was goaded on to complete his military assignment as a sense of duty.

GOAD (Noun)

Meaning: someone or something that urges or forces someone to do something

Use: The threat of some kind of legal action is a strong goad for companies to follow government regulations.

DRAGOON (Verb)

Meaning: to force someone to do something

Use: She was dragooned into agreeing to the fraudulent scheme.

DRAGOON (Noun)

Meaning: member of certain British regiment

EXTORT (Verb)

Meaning: to get something by using force

Use: The courts realized that the gangster had tried to extort money from the business owners.

 

 

Explanation:  Deport (Verb) deviates slightly. Deport (Verb) means to expel a foreigner from a country. Extradite (Verb) means to legally send a person (Who has been accused of a crime) to another state or country.

Exile (Noun) means a situation in which you are forced to leave your country or home. It also means a person who has been forced to live in a foreign country.

BANISH (Verb)

Meaning: To force someone to leave a country

Use: The illegal aliens were banished back to their country.

EXILE (Verb)

Meaning: To force someone to leave a country

Use: Bohemian artist M F Hussain was exiled from our country.

EXILE (Noun)

Meaning: 1) a situation in which you are forced to leave your country or home

2) a person who has been forced to live in a foreign country.

Use: They hoped that his exile would be temporary.

DEPORT (Verb)

Meaning: to expel a foreigner from a country

Use: The court order sought to deport the mother even though her children, Jan and Jake, were born in the country where she had been living for the last ten years.

EXPATRIATE (Verb)

Meaning: To force someone to leave a country

Use: When Janet left her home in California and moved to Germany for good, she became an expatriate.

EXTRADITE (Verb)

Meaning: to legally send a person (Who has been accused of a crime) to another state or country

Use: Indian government is diplomatically trying to expedite the extradition process of Vijay Mallya.

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