CHAPTER 102 on Vocabulary


Meaning- experienced or felt by watching, hearing about, or reading about someone else rather than by doing something yourself

Mnemonic trick- vicarious contains word car. Daily, by watching people driving their car, we enjoy driving vicariously. Therefore, vicarious means experience by watching someone else rather than by doing something yourself.


  • I vicariously enjoyed my trip to Paris by reading travelling stories and watching images of Paris on google.
  • Child pretends that he is a doctor or he is a teacher. He is enjoying adult life, not directly, but vicariously. When he is older and more mature he will live less vicariously and more actually.
  • While reading book, we have vicarious joys and sorrows. We vicariously enjoy the lives of the characters of the story.
  • Since his accident he has been unable to take part in the sports that he used to love. Now he reads the sports page and enjoys tennis, golf, and baseball vicariously.



Meaning- 1) To clear someone or something of blame, guilt, suspicion or doubt.

2) To clear someone from censure, criticism, suspicion or doubt.

3) To provide justification or defense for something or to justify something.



  • The confession of the real criminal immediately vindicated Jasper who the police had held for questioning about the break-in of the local jewelry store.
  • Marya checked with a dictionary resource to vindicate the unusual spelling of a word in her essay.
  • The new evidence that was presented in the criminal trial immediately vindicated the defense lawyer’ s position that her client was innocent.
  • Their approach to the problem was vindicated by positive results they got.



Meaning- having or showing a desire to hurt someone who has hurt or caused problems for you

Mnemonic trick- vindictive contains word ‘dict’ or Hindi word ‘dikkat’. We are vindictive toward those who cause dikkat for us. Therefore, vindictive means desire to hurt someone who has caused problems for you.



  • He accused her of being vindictive.
  • Be careful not to hurt her feelings, for she will never forgive you. You know how vindictive some women are.
  • I dislike him mainly for his vindictiveness.
  • Anger gives birth to vindictiveness and vindictive person hesitates at nothing in her bitterness.



Meaning- A person’ s face or facial expression or appearance.



  • The mother’ s visage was stern and angry as she scolded her son for batting his baseball through the window when he was playing in the backyard.
  • He was an old man with a noticeably happy visage.
  • The stern visage of the judge indicated that she had decided to impose a severe penalty.



Meaning- The power to make your own choices or decisions

Mnemonic trick- volition has been derived from word volunteer. Volunteers do our help of their own volition. Therefore, volition means something that we do out of our own will or choice.


  • Left the church of her own volition, not because he was excommunicated.
  • On seeing an injured boy, John stopped his car and helped him out of his own volition.
  • Have you ever done something of your own volition and regretted the same?


Meaning- It describes something of being done with a deliberate intention


  • Walter is always volitional to help his wife do the dishes after dinner.


Meaning- It describes an action that is done willingly


  • Michelle volitionally accompanies her friend in singing at the club on every weekend.
  • Robert was concerned about the tourists as their car had broken down. He offered to fix their car volitionally.







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