CHAPTER 14

CAPRICIOUS (Adj.)

Meaning- 1) changing often and quickly; especially often changing suddenly in mood or behavior.

2) not logical or reasonable.

Mnemonic trick- 1) The word capricious comes from word ‘caprice’. ‘Caprice’ means sudden change.

2) The word capricious contains word ‘capri’. Capri-pants are short pants. Capricious word is used for something staying for a short period of time or lasting quickly.

Synonym- UNPREDICTABLE, FICKLE, IMPULSIVE, WHIMSICAL, FREAKISH

Uses-

  • Sheena’ s such a capricious mother that her son does not know how she will react when he tells her that he and his girlfriend are engaged.
  • But “there is nothing more capricious than the memory of a child: what it will hold and what it will lose ”.

 

CAPTIOUS(Adj.)

Meaning- fault finding, tending to express criticism about unimportant things.

Synonym- FAULTFINDING, CARPING, CAVILLING, HYPERCRITICAL, NIT-PICKING

Uses-

  • As a captious person, my uncle always tries to frustrate me with his constant criticism of what I am doing.
  • A captious customer always cavils about the price.
  • I am not a captious person. I don’ t intend to cavil.

 

CARNAGE(Noun)

Meaning- Violent killing of a large number of people especially in war.

Mnemonic trick- Word Karan sounds similar to carn. In MAHABHARATA carnage occurred during the reign of Karan. Therefore, carnage means merciless killing of a large number of people.

Synonym- MASSACRE, SLAUGHTER

Explanation-Word slaughter has two meanings: 1) violent killing of large number of people

2) Carnage ( an act of killing an animal for their meat).

Uses-

  • The film depicts the carnage.
  • The war between Israel and Palestine was a scene of dreadful carnage.

 

CASTIGATE (OR LAMBASTE) (Verb)

Meaning- to criticize someone (or something) very harshly.

Synonym- ADMONISH, REPROACH, REPRIMAND

Uses-

  • The coach castigated the team for its poor performance.
  • They wrote several letters castigating the new law.
  • The president of the company was castigated in the local newspaper and television for millions of dollars while his company went bankrupt.

 

CATACLYSM (OR CATASTROPHE) (Noun)

Meaning- a sudden disaster or a violent event that causes bad change, for example:- a flood or a war.

Synonym- DELUGE, UPHEAVAL

Uses-

  • A cataclysm such as second world war affects all countries.
  • Developing countries can’t survive the cataclysm of war.
  • An earthquake can cause a great cataclysm; especially, in a densely populated area.
  • The summer cataclysm of hail and heavy rain further caused a cataclysm of flooding in the river bottoms.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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