CHAPTER 14 on Word Groups

EFFICACY (Noun)

Meaning: The power to produce a desired result or effect

Use:  The vaccine that the doctor recommended had the efficacy of being safe and effective in healing Mike’s illness.

EFFECTIVENESS (Noun)

Meaning: The power to produce a desired result or effect

 

 

Explanation: Hamper (Verb), Trammel (Verb), Clog (Verb), Fetter (Verb), Shackle (Verb), Manacle (Verb) and Constrain (Verb) means to hinder or restrict the movement, progress or action of (someone or something). Trammel and clog imply slowing by something extraneous. Fetter implies a restraining so severe that freedom to move or progress is almost lost. Shackle and manacle are stronger than fetter and suggest a total loss of freedom.

HAMPER (Verb)

Meaning: To slow the movement, progress or action of (someone or something)

Use: Their work is hampered by lack of funds.

TRAMMEL (Noun)

Meaning: A net for catching birds or fish

Use: Students and parents who want to throw off the trammels of outdated school policies.

TRAMMEL (Verb)

Meaning: To prevent or restrict (someone or something)

Use: Some canons that trammel the artist’ s creativity.

CLOG (Noun)

Meaning: Something that blocks something

Use: There is a clog in the kitchen sink.

CLOG (Verb)

Meaning: To slowly form a block in (something, such as a pipe or street)

Use: The drain clogs easily because the opening is so small.

FETTER (Noun)

Meaning: A pair of rings connected by a chain used to fasten a prisoner’ s wrists or ankles

Use: The police were moving the prisoners, all of whom were in fetters, to a new location.

FETTER (Verb)

Meaning: To prevent (someone or something) from moving or acting freely

Use: James found himself fettered by the responsibilities of completing the project.

SHACKLE (Noun)

Meaning: A pair of rings connected by a chain used to fasten a prisoner’ s wrists or ankles

Use: He placed shackles on the legs of the prisoners.

SHACKLE (Verb)

Meaning: To put a shackle on (someone or something)

Use: The criminal’ s ankles were shackled to prevent his escape.

MANACLE (Noun)

Meaning: A pair of rings connected by a chain used to fasten a prisoner’ s wrists or ankles

Use: The thief was finally caught at the scene of the crime and was taken away in manacles, with his arms behind his back, which prevented him from fighting with the police.

MANACLE (Verb)

Meaning: To confine (the hands) with manacles

Use: The police officer manacled the prisoner with handcuffs.

CONSTRAIN (Verb)

Meaning: To limit or restrict (something or someone)

Use: We felt constrained to object to the way he was treating the dog.

 

 

BIGOT (Noun)

Meaning: 1) A person who strongly and unfairly dislikes other people, ideas etc.

2) A person who hates or refuses to accept the member of a particular group.

Use: Mark’s son was considered to be a bigot when he made some offensive remarks about the religious beliefs of another student who was from Israel.

XENOPHOBIC (Adj.)

Meaning: Fearful of what is foreign and especially of people of foreign origin

Use: When Ray’s wife suggested that they should go on a trip to France and England to visit friends, he rejected the idea because as a xenophobic person, he had a terrible fear of being around so many strangers.

PREJUDICED (Adj.)

Meaning: A person who dislikes a person or group because of race, sex, religion etc.

Use: Much of the violence that was observed in the county was the result of the prejudiced behavior of the residents.

 

BIGOT (Noun)

Meaning: 1) A person who strongly and unfairly dislikes other people, ideas etc.

2) A person who hates or refuses to accept the member of a particular group.

Use: Mark’s son was considered to be a bigot when he made some offensive remarks about the religious beliefs of another student who was from Israel.

RABID (Adj.)

Meaning: Having or expressing a very strong opinion about or interest in something

Use: Fern was a politician with rabid supporters.

DOGMATIC (Noun)

Meaning: Expressing personal opinions or beliefs as if they are certainly true

Use: Pete made a dogmatic statement as to why he would not be going to work today.

FANATIC (Adj.)

Meaning: Marked by excessive enthusiasm and often intense uncritical devotion.

Use: Because of her fanatical views, her friends know better than to discuss religion with her.

 

GREGARIOUS (Adj.)

Meaning: Enjoying the company of other people

Use: As a gregarious individual, Samuel loves to be with large gatherings of people.

EXTROVERT (Adj.)

Meaning: Enjoying the company of other people

Use: Mr. Jonas thought that James was the most extroverted, amicable, and open member of his psychology class.

SOCIABLE (Adj.)

Meaning: Enjoying the company of other people or liking to talk to people

Use: They are sociable people who enjoy having parties.

CONVIVIAL (Adj.)

Meaning: Fond of feasting, drinking and a good company

Use: It was a lively, convivial atmosphere- gone but not forgotten.

 

 

QUAIL (Noun)

Meaning: A kind of small bird that is often hunted

Use: We had quail for dinner.

QUAIL (Verb)

Meaning: To feel afraid

Use: The unexpected sounds from the attic made Sally quail in fear of a ghost.

COWER (Verb)

Meaning: Crouch or shrink back in fear

Use: The frightened child cowered in the corner of the room.

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