CHAPTER 15 on Vocabulary

CAVEAT (Noun)

Meaning- 1) An explanation or warning that should be remembered when you are doing or thinking about something.

2) A legal warning to a judicial officer to suspend a proceeding until the opposition has a hearing.

Mnemonic trick- The word caveat contains word cave. There is a caveat that if you enter cave, lion will eat you. Therefore, caveat means explanation or warning that should be remembered when you are doing or thinking about something.

Synonym- PROVISO, WARNING.PRINCIPLE

Uses-

  • His investment advice comes with a caveat: that the stock market is impossible to predict with absolute accuracy.
  • It is appropriate to issue certain caveats here.
  • I have to add our usual caveat to the agreement.
  • It was early recognized- and, indeed, is mentioned in the first patents of Bell, and in a caveat-filled by Elisha Gray in the United States patent office only some two hours after Bell’ s application for a patent – that sounds and spoken words might be transmitted to a distance by causing the vibrations of a diaphragm to vary the resistance in the circuit.

 

CONTEMPLATE (OR PONDER OR COGITATE OR CEREBRATE) (Verb)

Meaning- action of thinking or looking at something attentively

Uses-

  • Roy is contemplating retirement next year as he has not been keeping well for a long time.
  • When Smith was contemplating a new business, he consulted competent finance, legal and tax advisors to ensure the viability of his venture.
  • Have you ever contemplated something for a long time?
  • By the time he finishes contemplating what to do with his life, it will be almost over.

                           

CHARISMATIC (Adj.)

Meaning- having a special power which some people possess naturally which makes them able to influence other people and attract their attention and admiration or having charisma.

Mnemonic trick- The word ‘Charismatic’ contains word ‘Charishma’. ‘Charisma’ sounds similar to ‘Karishma’. Hindi word ‘Karishma’ means magic. Therefore, Charismatic means a special or magical power which some people possess to influence other people and attract their attention.

Synonym- ALLURING, APPEALING, FASCINATING

Uses-

  • Narendra Modi and Mamata Banerjee are charismatic leaders.
  • How did a man of so little personal charisma get to be Prime Minister?
  • The judge chose to show clemency to the truly repentant embezzler.

 

CHASTISE (Verb)

Meaning- To criticize someone harshly.

Synonym- CENSURE, CHASTISE, LAMBASTE, CASTIGATE, BERATE, EXCORIATE, ASSAIL, REVILE, RAIL, MALIGN, VILIFY

Uses-

  • Nina chastised her two children for playing ball in the living room; especially since they broke a mirror on the wall!
  • Smith chastised the children in her classroom who were running around while others were still taking their tests.
  • Sometimes in the past, the slaves on some plantations were chastised or beaten for not doing enough work in the fields.
  • Some people have been chastising or criticizing the government for allowing so many refugees into the country all at once.

                                

CHAUVINISTIC (Adj.)

First Meaning- The belief that your country, race etc. is better than any other.

Mnemonic trick- Chauvinistic contains word chauvi. Chauvi sounds similar to Hindi word ‘cchavii’. Cchavii means image. Lady cchavii was saying that we should attack Pakistan. she has a cchavii of chauvinistic. Therefore chauvinistic means extreme lover of his or her country.

Synonym- JINGOIST

Uses-

  • He makes trouble by his unreasoning, irascible and vainglorious patriotism. He is a true chauvinistic.
  • Just like a chauvinistic, he carries jealousy of his country’ s honor to an absurd and ridiculous extreme.
  • Their chauvinism has blinded them to their country’ s fault.

Second Meaning- belief that members of your sex are always better than those of opposite sex.

Uses-

  • Appeal to the latent chauvinism of many ordinary people.
  • A chauvinistic cannot understand problems like domestic violence, female feticide, dowry etc.

 

 

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