CHAPTER 19 on Word Groups

ELATE (Verb)

Meaning: To make (someone) very happy and excited

Use: Linda’s agreement to marry Thomas elated and exhilarated his spirits!


Meaning: To cause (someone) to feel very happy and excited

Use: Knowing that their daughter, Bernice, has passed her exam will certainly exhilarate the parents.


Meaning: To feel (someone) with delight

Use: Kim’s wonderful voice enraptured the audience.



Explanation: Discern (Verb) means to detect or recognize or to discriminate. Discerning (Verb) originates from word discern (Verb). Keen (Adj.) means quick to understand. It has second meaning also. It also means excited and enthusiastic.


Meaning: Having or showing an ability to notice and understand things clearly

Use: Bernhard was an astute administrator in that he was good at judging situations and people and using such knowledge to make good decisions.


Meaning: Having or showing an ability to notice and understand things clearly

Use: Mike always thought his mother was a perspicacious judge of character.


Meaning: Having or showing an ability to notice and understand things and to make good decisions

Use: The educational counselor gave the student sagacious counsel.


Meaning: Having or showing an ability to notice and understand things and to make good decisions

Use: An uncle who is always good for valuable insights and some sapient advice.


Meaning: Having or showing an ability to notice and understand things and to make good decisions

Use: Someone has said that shrewd investors should hold their stocks until prices increase again.


Meaning: Able to see and understand people, things or situations clearly and intelligently

Use:discerning mind is known to determine the best way of doing something.


Meaning: Having or showing an ability to understand or notice something easily or quickly

Use: I felt he was a sensitive, poetic, perceptive and natural person.

SAGE (Adj.)

Meaning: Very wise

Use: Martha’s mother gave her some sage advice before she went to the university.


Meaning: Having or showing a very clear understanding of something

Use: I also appreciate the insightful comments received from the anonymous reviewers.

KEEN (Adj.)

Meaning: 1) Quick to understand

2) Excited and enthusiastic about something

Use: Lawrence and his family were keen on going to the picnic this afternoon.




Meaning: Strange because of not agreeing with what is usual or expected

Use: His outburst seemed incongruous to those who know him well.


Meaning: Not appropriate or suitable

Use: We won’ t tolerate such appropriate behavior.


Meaning: Not felicitous or not appropriate

Use: An infelicitous comment on the weight of the guest of honor at the banquet.

UNAPT (Adj.)

Meaning: Inappropriate

Use: At this point, an admission of guilt from him would be most unapt.




Meaning: Not willing to change an opinion or decision

Use: Tamika’s aunt is an adamant defender of women’s rights.


Meaning: Stubborn and determined

Use: Dogged devotion.


Meaning: Not willing to change your opinion or the way you do something

Use: Caroline responded with an obdurate refusal to arrive for work on Thanksgiving Day when her supervisor told her to show up.


Meaning: Refusing to change your behavior or your ideas

Use: Mark, the teacher, was trying to deal with an obstinate pupil who refused to put his cell phone away during class; so, the boy was sent to the principal.


Meaning: Persistent or adhering resolutely to an opinion

Use: She is bound to succeed because her pertinacious nature will not permit her to quit.


Meaning: Very stubborn

Use: She approached the job with mulish determination.


Meaning: 1) Not easily influenced or persuaded

2) Not easily bent or twisted

Use: An inflexible law.


Meaning: Not easily managed, controlled or solved

Use: Intractable people are very difficult to influence or to get along with.


Meaning: Completely unwilling to change

Use: Max and Maxine were two married intransigents who could not agree on many issues and argued almost constantly.


Meaning: Difficult to control or deal with

Use: The refractory horse was eliminated from the race when he refused to obey the jockey.


Meaning: 1) Very determined to do something

2) Continuing for a long time

Use: Ken was making a tenacious effort to complete his assignments as a reporter despite the dangers he was experiencing in the battle zone.




Meaning: Stubbornly refusing to obey rules

Use: Which animal do you think is more recalcitrant, a pig or a mule?


Meaning: Stubbornly disobedient

Use: Bruce’s contumacious conduct with his teacher, when she asked him to put his cell phone away, resulted in him being sent to the principal’s office.


Meaning: Refusing to obey something or someone

Use: There has been a lot of news about defiant people who have been protesting in countries who are unhappy about their economic situations.




Meaning: Characterized by steady, earnest and energetic effort

Use: Monroe was diligent in writing his short stories with literary accuracy and interesting characters.


Meaning: Showing great care, attention, and effort

Use: Max was always doing assiduous researches for his chemistry projects so he could have the best possible results.


Meaning: Requiring a lot of time and effort

Use: We spent many laborious hours on the project and it is still not completed.


Meaning: Working very hard

Use: Sam is known as a very industrious worker by his fellow contractors.


Meaning: Able to work or continue for a long time without being tired

Use: An indefatigable laborer who can work from sunrise to sunset.


Meaning: Working very hard with a lot of energy for a long time

Use: She has been a tireless advocate for human rights.


Meaning: Dedicated and careful

Use: The sedulous economists were in search of all of the latest facts and figures regarding what to expect in the current monetary conditions.


Attempt Sentence Equivalence Test 7

Based on words covered in Chapter 17, Chapter 18, Chapter 19.

Number of questions: 10

Time limit: 15 min.



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