CHAPTER 20

CONTIGUOUS (Adj.)

Meaning- adjacent to, touching upon.

Mnemonic Trick- Word Contiguous sounds similar to continuous. Two states continuously sharing boundaries are contiguous states. Therefore, contiguous means adjacent or sharing boundary.

Synonym- ABUTTING, ADJACENT

Uses-

  • Two years of travel throughout the 48 contiguous states.
  • The two countries are contiguous for few miles and then they are separated by the gulf.

 

TRANSGRESS (OR CONTRAVENE) (Verb)

Meaning-  To do something that is not allowed or to disobey a command or law.

Synonym- INFRINGE, FLOUT

Explanation- Transgress and contravene have the same meaning. Infringe means to disobey a law and it also means to limit or restrict (Something, such as another person’s rights)

Uses-

  • He who transgresses must seek forgiveness.
  • The overcrowded dance club transgressed safety regulations.
  • Union budget is in favor of farmers instead of landlords. It does not transgress the royal prerogative or the law of the land.

Uses of INFRINGE-

  • Her rights must not be infringed.
  • They claim that his use of the name infringes their copyright.

 

CONTRIVANCE (Noun)

Meaning-  a cleverly made device to fulfill a special need or something done in a clever way to accomplish something or something that causes things to happen in a story in a way that does not seem natural or believable.

Explanation- derived from root word contrive. Contrive means to plan or to arrange a situation or event, or arrange for something to happen using clever planning. It also means to invent or to make a device in a clever or intelligent way.

Uses-

  • The contrivance most generally adopted for calling attention was a call-bell rung either by a small generator or battery.
  • He married the daughter of the king and succeeded to the throne by the contrivance of his mother-in-law who was skilled in divination and foresaw his greatness.
  • This excellent time-saving contrivance is also used in Gill’s apparatus for measuring astrographic plates.

                                

CONTRIVE (Verb)

Meaning- to plan or to arrange a situation or event, or arrange for something to happen using clever planning. It also means to invent or to make a device in a clever or intelligent way.

Mnemonic Trick- It is must to contrive to arrive in a rich country. Contrive means to make (something) happen in a clever way or with difficulty.

Synonym- EXCOGITATE

Uses-

  • Daniel is a master at contriving reasons not to do her assigned work.
  • The oil companies were accused of contriving a shortage of gasoline to justify the price increase.
  • I will try to contrive an appointment with her.

 

REFUTE (OR CONTROVERT OR REBUT) (Verb)

Meaning- to say or prove that (something) is wrong.

Mnemonic trick- The word refute sounds similar to word refuse. Refuse means to say that you will not accept something. Refute has slightly different meaning. It means to say or prove that (something) is wrong.

Synonym- REPUDIATE, CONTRADICT

Uses-

  • She refuted the allegations against her.
  • The lawyer, Mr. Mehta, refuted the testimony of the witness against his client, Mr. Smith, as being completely untrue.
  • Greg’s employer totally refutes the allegation that he is racially biased.
  • Mike is refuting the notion that he is planning to retire soon.

 

 

 

 

 

 

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