CHAPTER 23 on Word Groups

Explanation: Grudge (Noun) means bitter feeling or feeling of hatred toward other people. Grudge (Verb) means to feel hatred toward other people. Grudge (Verb) has second meaning also. It also means to be unwilling to give or allow.

Vindictiveness (Noun) means bitter feeling or feeling of hatred toward someone who has hurt or caused problems for you.


Meaning: A desire to cause harm to another person

Use:  There was a report that three teenagers shot and killed a man out of pure malice as he was jogging by the road for exercise in Duncan, Oklahoma, on Friday, August 16, 2013.


Meaning: A desire to cause harm to others

Use: The queen’s benevolence, or kindness and generosity, was known throughout the kingdom.


Meaning: A bitter feeling or feeling of hatred toward other people

Use: She held a grudge against her former boss.


Meaning: 1) To feel hatred toward other people.

2) To be unwilling to give or allow.

Use: I don’ t grudge paying my share.


Meaning: Feeling of anger

Use: The bill’ s failure to pass in the legislature was due to nothing more than partisan spleen.


Meaning: A feeling of hatred or dislike

Use: Thirty years after the war, she could not let go of the past but was still consumed with rancor against the foe.


Meaning: A strong feeling of dislike

Use: Mike’s aunt felt a strong antipathy towards snakes and she could not tolerate even looking at a picture of one.


Meaning: A strong feeling of dislike or hatred

Use: Only one kind of passion is represented in animosity and that is the fervor of repugnance or revulsion.


Meaning: A very deep unfriendly

Use: There is a long history of enmity between Howard and his fellow workers because of his comments against the labor union.


Meaning: Angry and bitter filling

Use: Ina expresses her acrimonies with her neighbors with shouting and the stomping of her feet.


Meaning: Dislike or opposition

Use: Such was the anger and hostility among the callers that one official refused to take any more calls.


Meaning: A feeling of anger or displeasure

Use:  All the confusion at the airport caused considerable resentments among the passengers whose flights were delayed so long or canceled.


Meaning: Feeling or desire to hurt someone who has hurt or caused problems for you

Use: Karen’s husband showed a vindictiveness towards her during the divorce proceedings because of her accusations that he was unfaithful, which he strongly denied.


Explanation: Virulent (Adj.) means full of hate or anger. It has second meaning also. It also means very harmful.


Meaning: 1) Full of hate or anger

2) Very harmful

Use: He received virulent criticism from his supervisor.


Meaning: Full of hatred and anger

Use: He hurled vitriolic criticism at her performance.


Meaning: Full of hatred and anger

Use: A rancorous autobiography in which the author heaps blame on just about everyone who had the misfortune of knowing him.


Explanation: Snare (Noun and Verb) deviates slightly.


Meaning: Danger

Use: The city’ s firefighters routinely put their lives in jeopardy by executing daring rescues.


Meaning: A hidden danger or difficulty

Use: Well anyways, it was caught in a trap, a pitfall.

SNARE (Noun)

Meaning: 1) A trap with a loop of wire that pulls tight

2) A dangerous position or situation from which it is difficult to escape

Use: People caught in the snare of drug addiction.

SNARE (Verb)

Meaning: Catch or trap

Use: The young runaway gradually became snared in a web of lies.

PERIL (Noun)

Meaning: Serious danger

Use: The preacher warned his flock to beware the peril of excessive pride, for pride brought on the angels’ fall.


Meaning: Danger

Use: No matter how often you have done this job before there are still hidden endangerments along the way.


Meaning: Danger

Use: How do you deal with difficult grandchildren while avoiding the imperilments of interfering or being critical?




Meaning: To put (someone or something) in a dangerous situation

Use: The toxic fumes imperiled the lives of the trapped miners.


Meaning: To cause (someone or something) to be in a dangerous place or situation

Use: The severe drought has endangered crops throughout the area.


Meaning: To put (someone or something) in danger

Use: You can’ t give me a D in chemistry; you will jeopardize my chances of being admitted to MIT.



Meaning: Happy and lively in a way that is attractive

Use: Kathy had the most vivacious personality of all the girls in the class, being very lively, cheerful, and full of life!


Meaning: Cheerful and happy

Use: A blithesome girl who never seems to be sad or angry.


Meaning: Cheerful and full of energy

Use: His mood was ebullient, and he had every reason to be satisfied.


Meaning: Happy and cheerful

Use: The father of the mirthful baby had a picture taken to show his friends and relatives how sweet and lovable his little boy is.


Meaning: Cheerful, pleasant and appealing

Use: The students joined in a winsome pose for the photographer at their summer picnic.

CANTY (Adj.)

Meaning: Cheerful and full of energy

Use: He has a canty outlook on life.


Meaning: Very cheerful

Use: Peter often covered his embarrassment by indulging in jocose comments.


Meaning: Cheerful

Use: Harry’s aunt had a jocund personality that endeared her to her friends and colleagues.


Meaning: full of happiness and joy

Use: A frown seemed out of place on his invariably jovial face.

JOLLY (Adj.)

Meaning: Happy and cheerful

Use: Our boss was a very jolly man, always laughing.


Meaning: Cheerful and happy

Use The gleeful atmosphere that envelops the host city of the Super Bowl.


Meaning: Cheerful

Use: Our eupeptic colleague was unfazed by our gloomy expressions and dire predictions.


Attempt Sentence Equivalence Test 8

Based on words covered in Chapter 20, Chapter 21, Chapter 22, Chapter 23.

Number of questions: 5

Time limit: 8 min.



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