CHAPTER 32 on Word Groups

Explanation: Audacious (Adj.) means highly confident or bold. It is used in both positive and negative sense. Gall (Noun) means brazen boldness. It also means annoyance or resentment. Gall (Verb) means to make someone feel annoyed or angry.

Cheek (Noun) means insolent boldness. Cheek (Verb) means to speak impudently to.


Meaning: A confident and daring quality that is often seen as shocking or rude

Use: The audacity of the fireman saved the life of the little girl when the apartment building was on fire.


Meaning: The quality of being confident and unafraid of danger especially in a way that seems rude or foolish

Use: The plan to ride across the desert by camel showed a remarkable temerity on the part of the explorer.


Meaning: Rudeness and impoliteness

Use: My mother would not tolerate insolence from any of us.


Meaning: Rudeness and impoliteness

Use: Their impudence irritated everyone at the wedding reception.


Meaning: Rudeness and impoliteness

Use: How dare you to treat me so rudely! The manager will hear of your impertinence.

CHEEK (Noun)

Meaning: insolent boldness

Use: Ben had the cheek to insult his hosts at the party.

CHEEK (Verb)

Meaning: to speak impudently to


Meaning: A very confident attitude or way of behaving that is shocking or rude

Use: Frank thought it was an effrontery for Mike to barge into the party uninvited.

GALL (Noun)

Meaning: 1) brazen boldness

2) annoyance or resentment

3) A sore or worn made by rubbing

4) An abnormal outgrowth of plant tissue

Use: Keith had the gall to talk back to his grandmother when she pointed out his mistake.

GALL (Verb)

Meaning: to make someone feel annoyed or angry

Use: It galls me that such a small group of people can have so much power.


Explanation: Dupe (Noun) means one that is easily deceived. Dupe (Verb) means to deceive someone.

DUPE (Noun)

Meaning: One who is easily deceived

Use: While the gullible Watson often was made a dupe by unscrupulous parties, Sherlock Holmes was more difficult to fool.

DUPE (Verb)

Meaning: To deceive someone

Use: The man in the hotel tried to dupe Cathleen’s friend into paying a high price for a cheap watch.


Meaning: Too ready to believe things

Use: The credulous behavior of the young man who had just moved to the city suggested that he was naive.


Meaning: Too ready to believe things

Use: Jancy was a gullible person who thought she could be chosen for a million dollar prize by simply filling out a form with personal information and submitting it to an organization on the internet.


Meaning: Not false or artificial

Use: A genuine and artless girl.


Meaning: Very innocent

Use: The witness gave a guileless testimony during the criminal court trial.


Meaning: Showing innocence or childlike honesty

Use: Although the scientist who was presented in social situations as being ingenuous, he was, in fact, ingenious in his research.



Meaning: A person showing a desire to help other people and showing a lack of selfishness

Use: The charitable acts by the altruists were motivated purely by a real concern for those who needed help during the flooding.


Meaning: A person who gives money and time to help make life better for other people

Use:philanthropist “loves” all mankind and is a benefactor who provides financial or other material support to help people live better.


Meaning: Someone who helps another person, group etc. especially by giving money

Use: The benefactors for the new school were recognized by a brass plaque outside the entrance to the school which acknowledged their generous assistance.


Meaning: Doing or producing good

Use: The organization for the homeless received a significant and very liberal, but anonymous donation, the most beneficent gift which they have received this year.


Meaning: Kind and generous

Use: An anonymous and benevolent donor provided funds to help the homeless people in Hugo’s community.


Meaning: Having or showing a generous and kind nature

Use: Mary’s supervisor, Mr. Deal, was quite a magnanimous man when he understood why she had come quite late to work that morning.


Explanation: Yowl (Verb) means to make a loud, long cry. Yowling (Adj.) means expressed with loud cry. Clang (Noun) means a loud metallic sound. Clang (Verb) means to make a loud metallic sound. Clangor (Noun) means resounding metallic sound. Whoop (Noun) means loud cry of joy or excitement. Whoop (Verb) means to make a whoop (Noun). Whooping (Adj.) means overly noisy and harsh.


Meaning: Loud and unpleasant to listen to

Use: “They were having a raucous party even at two in the morning.”


Meaning: Sounding harsh and unpleasant

Use: “He had a strident tone in his writings.”


Meaning: Very obvious and offensive

Use: The politician was making blatant comments about his success as governor of his state.


Meaning: Very noisy and active in a lively way

Use: There was a boisterous crowd after the team won the football championship.


Meaning: Difficult to control and often noisy

Use: Helen and Margaret saw an obstreperous drunk outside the bar arguing with a police officer.


Meaning: Expressed in a very loud or forceful way

Use: When the salesclerk at the department store refused to give the vociferous customer a refund for a defected watch, the manager settled the conflict by replacing it with a new one.


Meaning: Noisy and marked by confusion

Use: When little Maurice woke up from his nap and couldn’t find his mother because she was working outside in the backyard, he made some clamorous screams which brought her back into the house to calm him down.


Meaning: Overly noisy and harsh

Use: A whooping cough


Meaning: Expressed with loud cry

Use: No one helped the yowling cat.


Meaning: Harsh or unpleasant in sound

Use: “The discordant views of Fred Brown, and his son Luis, resulted in many arguments between them.”


Meaning: Noisy and demanding attention

Use: Clamant students gathered outside the college president’ s office, protesting the denial of tenure for the popular professor.


Meaning: Unpleasant loud sounds

Use: The cacophony of noise from the street rose up and through the open windows in the tall office building.


Meaning: Resounding metallic sound

Use: Neighbors were disturbed by the sharp sounds of various metallic clangors which a group of celebrants were making to express their wishes for a happy new year to those who were there and elsewhere in the world.


Explanation: Wanton (Adj.) means showing no thought or care for the rights, feeling or safety of others. It has second meaning also. It means not restrained or not controlled. It has third meaning also. It gives reference to a woman having many sexual partners.

LEWD (Adj.)

Meaning: Sexual in an offensive or rude way

Use: “Walter’s lewd remarks to his colleague was very inappropriate and resulted in a reprimand from his supervisor.”


Meaning: Filled with or showing sexual desire

Use: In the film, Marissa played a character who was described as a lascivious dancer in a nightclub.


Meaning: Feeling or showing strong sexual desire

Use: He looked at her with lustful eyes.


Meaning: Relating to sex in a way that is excessive or offensive

Use: The explicit salacious content of the novel surprised Lynn and she thought it was too vulgar and lewd; so, she threw it into the trash can.


Meaning: Sexually immoral or offensive

Use: The politician was brought before the courts on charges relating to his licentious behaviors.


Meaning: Having or showing an excessive interest in sex

Use: The lecherous behavior of the young boy no doubt was an extension of the immoral influences he was experiencing in his family.


Meaning: Having or showing an excessive interest in sex

Use: Most of the male patrons at the bar appeared to be lecherous conventioneers looking for some action.


Meaning: 1) showing no thought or care for the rights, feeling or safety of others.

2) Not restrained or not controlled.

3) (of a woman) having sex with many men

Use: Pointing to the stack of bills, Sheldon criticized Sarah for her wanton expenditures.

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