CHAPTER 38 on Word Groups

Explanation:  Corroborate (Verb) deviates slightly. It means to support or help prove (a statement, theory etc.). Bolster (Noun) means a long, firm pillow.


Meaning: To give support to (something)

Use: More wooden structures are needed to bolster the roof of the building.


Meaning: A long, firm pillow.


Meaning: To support, strengthen or defend (something)

Use: The treaty will buttress the cause of peace.


Meaning: A structure built against a wall in order to support or strengthen it.

Use: The remnant of a long-disused church building, it was built out of solid stone with massive buttresses supporting long, high walls.


Meaning: 1) To strengthen (a place) by building military defenses

2) To make (someone or something) stronger

Use: “The walls, ditches, and ramparts will all need to be fortified.”


Meaning: To support or strengthen (something)

Use: The theory of evolution undergirds virtually all of modern biology.


Meaning: To support or strengthen (something)

Use: A wall underpinned by metal beams.


Meaning: 1) To make something stronger

2) To strengthen a military force with additional personnel

Use: The captain sent out another squad to reinforce the troops.


Meaning: to support or help prove (a statement, theory etc.)

Use: The independent research from the two scientists appeared to corroborate the cause of the disease.



Explanation:  Sovereign (Noun) means independent. Sovereign (Noun) has second meaning also. It means king or queen who is supreme ruler. It has third meaning also. It also means British gold coin that was used in past. Latitude (Noun) means a distance of a place in direction of North or south of the equator. Latitude (Noun) also means independence.


Meaning: The power or right of a country, group etc. to govern itself.

Use: A certain country was granted autonomy after the war and so it became an independent nation.


Meaning: A country’ s independent authority and the right to govern itself

Use: Neither Spain nor Guatemala ever exercised effective sovereignty over the area.


Meaning: The power to make your own choices or decisions

Use: She selected this dress of her own volition.


Meaning: 1) Freedom to choose how to act or what to do.

2) distance of a place in direction of North or south of the equator

Use: As a teacher, Jill was allowed a certain amount of leeway or latitude in deciding what methods and technical devices she could use in her classes at school.



Explanation:  Balk (or Baulk) means to hesitate to accept. Grudge (Verb) means to do something in a reluctant way. It has second meaning also. It also means to dislike or feel angry at someone or something.


Meaning: hesitating to accept or refusing to do what someone else wants you to do

Use: Balking horse would not jump the fence.


Meaning: said, done or given in an unwilling or doubtful way

Use: We received only grudging support from the mayor despite his earlier promises of aid.


Meaning: Feeling or showing doubt about doing something

Use: “The boys were reluctant to socialize with the new student.”

LOATH (Adj.)

Meaning: Not wanting or willing to do something

Use: Marla was loath to borrow the money from her friend even though she wanted to buy the new shoes.




Meaning: To enclose within walls or to imprison

Use:  Diana’s brother was immured in jail for driving while intoxicated.


Meaning: To put (someone) in prison

Use: He has threatened to imprison his political opponents.


Meaning: To put (someone) in prison

Use:  The police plan to incarcerate the drunken man overnight to prevent any conflicts on the street.




Meaning: 1) Always or often doing something specified

2) Always or often happening or existing

Use: She is an inveterate smoker and cannot break the habit.


Meaning: 1) Happening or existing frequently

2) Always or often doing something specified

Use: Mike’s friend was a chronic liar to such a degree that even when he told the truth no one believed him.


Meaning: Doing something regularly or repeatedly

Use: “Singing in the shower is one of Hank’s habitual activities”.


Attempt Sentence Equivalence Test 13

Based on words covered in Chapter 35, Chapter 36, Chapter 37, Chapter 38.

Number of questions: 9

Time limit: 15 min.



1….. 37 38 39 …………………………………………………………44



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