CHAPTER 40

Explanation: Tarnish means thin layer on the surface of the metal which makes metal look dull. Defile (Noun) means narrow passage through the mountain. Blemish (Verb), Taint (Verb), Tarnish (Verb) and Defile (Verb) implies damaging the quality of something. Debase (Verb), Sully (Verb) and Besmirch (Verb) implies ruining the reputation of someone.

BLEMISH (Verb)

Meaning: To make (something) imperfect or less beautiful

Use: Instead it has age marks, blemishes, and even a small spot or two with a brownish patina look.

BLEMISH (Noun)

Meaning: A mark that makes something imperfect or less beautiful

Use: I am an atheist and I won’ t choose to have my blemished by anyone taking the freedom to meddle with my choices in life, neither with my memory afterlife.

TAINT (Verb)

Meaning: To make (something) imperfect or less beautiful

Use: Pollution from Asia can taint the air along the West Coast of the U.S, said scientists on Friday at a meeting of the American Association for the advancement of science.

TAINT (Noun)

Meaning: Something that causes a person or thing to be thought of as bad, dishonest etc.

Use That rare political campaign that was not marred by the taint of false accusations.

TARNISH (Verb)

Meaning: To damage or ruin the good quality of (something, such as person’ s reputation etc.)

Use: His regime had not been tarnished by human rights abuses.

TARNISH (Noun)

Meaning: thin layer on surface of metal which makes metal look dull

Use: A polish that removes tarnish.

DEFILE (Verb)

Meaning: To make something unclean or impure

Use: The town sewer was known to defile the river with sewage.

DEFILE (Noun)

Meaning: narrow passage through mountain

Use: The train went through the defile of the mountains as it progressed to the destination.

DEBASE (Verb)

Meaning: To lower the value or reputation of (someone or something)

Use: The mayor of Tom’s city debased himself by lying to his citizens about his financial dealings with a company.

SULLY (Verb)

Meaning: To damage or ruin the good quality of (something)

Use: He felt that it was beneath his dignity to sully his hands in such menial labor.

BESMIRCH (Verb)

Meaning: To cause harm or damage to (the reputation of something or someone)

Use: The scandalous remarks in the newspaper besmirch the reputations of every member of the society.

VITIATE (Verb)

Meaning: To make (something) less effective or to ruin or spoil (something)

Use: The impact of the film was vitiated by poor acting.

 

SYMPOSIUM (Noun)

Meaning: A formal meeting at which experts discuss a particular topic

Use: Professors and graduate students attended the symposium.

COLLOQUIUM (Noun)

Meaning: A formal meeting at which experts discuss a particular topic

Use: Recently attended a daylong colloquium on new methods of chromatography.

 

 

SHELTERED (Adj.)

Meaning: Screened or hidden from view or living in seclusion

Use: Climbers sheltered in a cave during the storm.

SECLUDED (Adj.)

Meaning: Screened or hidden from view or living in seclusion

Use:  Jerome secluded a home deep in the forest where nobody ever goes and lives as a hermit who has no contact with other individuals.

CLOISTERED (Adj.)

Meaning: Separated from rest of the world or living in a cloister

Use: “The artist lead a private, cloistered life in the mountains.”

ISOLATED (Adj.)

Meaning: Separated from others

Use: The town remains a very isolated community.

 

PRODIGAL (Adj.)

Meaning: Anyone who spends funds or money in an excessive or uncontrollable way.

Use: Karl’ s neighbor has nothing left of his inheritance because of his prodigal behavior and excessive way of living.

PROFLIGATE (Adj.)

Meaning: Anyone who spends funds or money in an excessive or uncontrollable way.

Use: During his campaign, the mayor swore to put an end to the government’ s profligate spending.

SPENDTHRIFT (Noun)

Meaning: A person who spends money in a careless or wasteful way.

Use: Easy access to credit encourages people to turn into spendthrifts who shop until they drop.

SQUANDERER (Noun)

Meaning: A person who spends money in a foolish or wasteful way.

Use: Don’ t go down in history as a squanderer, who threw away the country’ s wealth and squandered the opportunity to truly develop our nation.

WASTREL (Noun)

Meaning: A person who wastes time, money etc.

Use: Glenda’s nephew was a wastrel so she refused to include him in her will.

 

 

PARSIMONIOUS (Adj.)

Meaning: very unwilling to spend money

Use: Janita always calculates the money cost of all his activities. She is parsimonious.

STINGY (Adj.)

Meaning: Not liking or wanting to give or spend money.

Use: The company was too stingy to raise salaries.

SKINFLINT (Noun)

Meaning: very unwilling to spend money

Use I am Skinflint. I am afraid that if people refer to my attitude toward spending money.

NIGGARD (Noun)

Meaning: A person who hates to spend money.

Use: His father is a real niggard and refuses to pay her way through college, even though he can easily afford it.

MISER (Noun)

Meaning: A person who hates to spend money.

Use Although David Williams was wealthy, he was a miser who lived a miserable life alone and without any friends.

SCROOGE (Noun)

Meaning: A person who hates to spend money.

Use: Until his redemption, Ebenezer Scrooge is the classic example of a very stingy, heartless Scrooge.

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