CHAPTER 42 on Word Groups

Explanation: Demure (Adj.) means polite and not showy or flashy. Prim (Adj.) means formal and proper. It has second meaning also. It also means easily shocked or upset by rude behavior. Propriety (Noun) means proper behavior.

DECOROUS (Adj.)

Meaning: Correct and polite in a particular situation

Use: Jacob has always been considered a polite and decorous neighbor until he was heard yelling curses and vulgar words at his wife one evening.

DEMURE (Adj.)

Meaning: Polite and not showy or not fleshy

Use: The governess, or woman who was employed to teach and to take care of little Susie, seemed to be quite reserved and demure, but she was very watchful and protective of her young child while they were in the playground or any other place.

PRIM (Adj.)

Meaning: 1) Formal and proper

2) Easily shocked or upset by rude behavior

Use: She had the look of a prim and proper lady of the Victorian times, with all her tended hairs.

PROPRIETY (Noun)

Meaning: Proper behavior

Use: Randal’s behavior would not offend the propriety of the professional organization to which he hoped to belong.

SEEMLY (Adj.)

Meaning: Proper and appropriate for the situation

Use: For most practical purposes the exclusion is one of form, not substance, and is based on local cultural notions of what is seemly.

 

 

BEDLAM (Noun)

Meaning: Very noisy and confused state

Use: There was so much bedlam in kindergarten, that the teacher couldn’t be heard when she tried to talk to them!

PANDEMONIUM (Noun)

Meaning: Uproar

Use: When the ships collided in the harbor, pandemonium broke out among the passengers.

TUMULTUOUS (Adj.)

Meaning: Involving a lot of violence, confusion or disorder

Use: After the university administration rejected the students’ proposal to stop an increase in fees, there were tumultuous protests on the campus.

TURMOIL (Noun)

Meaning: A state of confusion or disorder

Use: The classroom was full of turmoil; as, the extremely loud children were standing on tables, chairs were turned over, the blackboard was covered with drawings, etc. because the teacher came a half hour late to the class!

TURBULENCE (Noun)

Meaning: A state of violence, confusion or disorder

Use: Avoiding excessive turbulence generated around moving objects; such as, aircraft, which can make their motion inefficient and difficult to control, is a major factor in aerodynamic designing.

TUMULT (Noun)

Meaning: A state of noisy confusion or disorder

Use: His mind was in a series of tumults revealing his emotional disturbances.

 

 

Explanation: Bombastic, Pompous and Braggart differ in meaning slightly. They mean talking in a confident way to impress others

ARROGANT (Adj.)

Meaning: Showing the insulting attitude of people who think that they are better or smarter than other people

Use: The arrogant attorney was given a warning by the judge to take it easy when cross-examining the witness.

CONCEITED (Adj.)

Meaning: Having or showing excessive pride in yourself

Use: The author of the book was a brilliant creator of novels; however, he was also considered a very conceited compiler of literature by many other writers.

EGOTISTICAL (Adj.)

Meaning: Having or showing excessively proud behavior

Use: He was vain, egotistical, boorish and gloriously insensitive.

HAUGHTY (Adj.)

Meaning: Showing the insulting attitude of people who think that they are better or smarter than other people.

Use:haughty person treats other people as if they are inferior and not worth being around

HUBRIS (Noun)

Meaning: Excessive pride and self-confidence

Use: George started his business career as a pleasant clerk; however, by the time he became the CEO of the company years later, he showed signs of hubris which would lead to his downfall.

CONDESCENDING (Adj.)

Meaning: Behaving as if you are better than other people

Use: The customer was condescending to the saleswoman who was trying very hard to be polite and to provide the best service possible.

OSTENTATIOUS (Adj.)

Meaning: Showing excessive display

Use: Trump’ s latest casino in Atlantic City is the most ostentatious gambling place in the East.

SUPERCILIOUS (Adj.)

Meaning: Showing the insulting attitude of people who think that they are better or smarter than other people.

Use: Her mother eyed my clothes with a supercilious attitude.

VAINGLORIOUS (Adj.)

Meaning: Showing too much pride in your abilities or achievements

Use: James was a vainglorious athlete who bragged about his basketball talents whenever he was interviewed on TV or the radio.

BOMBASTIC (Adj.)

Meaning: Speaking or writing to sound important or impressive

Use: While on the campaign trail, Senator Smith frequently made bombastic speeches.

POMPOUS (Adj.)

Meaning: Speaking or writing to sound important or impressive

Use: The university newspaper expressed some of the students’ feelings that there was a pompous professor who seemed to think that he was much too qualified to teach students who had such a minimal amount of intelligence.

BRAGGART (Noun)

Meaning: A person who brags a lot or one who speaks a lot to sound important or impressive

Use: James was such a braggart that he really disturbed people because he couldn’t stop talking about winning the tennis match against a former professional player.

 

 

Explanation: Bravado (Noun) means confident or brave talk or behavior that is intended to impress other people. Swagger (Noun) means a way of walking or behaving that shows a lot of confidence. Swagger (verb) means to walk with confidence. Swagger (Adj.) means showing off.

BRAVADO (Noun)

Meaning: Confident or brave talk or behavior that is intended to impress other people

Use: I remembered his youthful bravado.

SWAGGER (Verb)

Meaning: To walk with confidence

Use: He swaggered along the corridor.

SWAGGER (Noun)

Meaning: A way of walking or behaving that shows lot of confidence

Use: After years of hard-earned success on Broadway, the brothers arrived in Hollywood with an arrogant swagger.

SWAGGER (Adj.)

Meaning: Showing off

Use: They strolled around the camp with an exaggerated swagger.

 

 

Explanation: Declaim (Verb) means to say (something) in usually a loud and formal way. Declamation (Noun) means stated loudly and in a formal way.

BRAGGADOCIO (Noun)

Meaning: Exaggerated talk of someone who is trying to sound very important or brave

Use: Tina, the new girl in the biology class, had a showy kind of character and seemed to be a braggadocio who was telling the other students about the yacht her parents had and of their traveling back and forth on the coast, but none of it was true!

GASCONADE (Noun)

Meaning: Exaggerated talk of someone who is trying to sound very important or brave

Use: Joe’s grandmother was always making a lot of gasconades about him whenever anyone asked her about how he was doing as a student at the university.

RODOMONTADE (Noun)

Meaning: Boasting or bragging speech

Use: For all of its jingoistic rodomontade, the government had no thought-out plan for the war and its aftermath.

COCKALORUM (Noun)

Meaning: Boastful talk

Use: A boxer who was as famous for his prefight cockalorum as for his knockouts in the ring.

FANFARONADE (Noun)

Meaning: Empty boasting

Use: All his talk of how he would easily win the boxing match turned out to be so much fanfaronade.

GRANDILOQUENCE (Noun)

Meaning: Extravagantly pompous or bombastic style especially in language

Use: A heavyweight champion who was famous for his entertaining grandiloquence prior to every match.

DECLAMATION (Noun)

Meaning: Stated loudly, confidently and in a formal way

Use: The local newspaper reported on the declamations of the speaker who had radical and persuasive viewpoints on the subject of climate change.

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