CHAPTER 5

OBSCURE (Adj.)

Meaning: Not well-known or difficult to understand

Use: Some scientist may understand the Einstein’s theory of relativity, but for students, it is an obscure collection of ideas.

ABSTRUSE (Adj.)

Meaning: Hard to understand

Use: The poetry of Harry Philips was often described as abstruse and so it was often relegated to the bottom shelf of many libraries.

ESOTERIC (Adj.)

Meaning: Hard to understand

Use: Metaphysics is such an esoteric subject that most people are content to leave it to philosophers.

RAREFIED (Adj.)

Meaning: 1) Understood by only a small group of people

2) (of air) Of low pressure than usual

Use: It is difficult to breathe in the rarefied air near the mountain’ s   peak.

RECONDITE (Adj.)

Meaning: Not understood or known by many people

Use: He read many recondite books in order to obtain the material for his scholarly thesis.

 

Explanation: Allure (Verb) means to attract. Allure (Noun) means the power to attract. Bedazzle (Verb)    means to enchant someone or to thrill or excite someone. Bewitch (Verb) means to attract someone in a way that seems magical. It has second meaning also. Bewitch (Verb) also means to use magic to make someone do, think or say something. Beguile (Verb) means to trick or deceive someone. It has second meaning also. It also means to attract someone. We covered beguile (Verb) in series for to trick or deceive someone.

CAPTIVATE (Verb)

Meaning: To attract and hold the attention of (someone) by being interesting, pretty etc.

Use: Miss world Manushi Chillar captivated the audience with her attitude, beauty and dramatic flair.

ALLURE (Verb)

Meaning: To attract by charm

Use: Was so allured by his sister’ s college roommate that before long he was asking her for a roommate.

ALLURE (Noun)

Meaning: Attractiveness or charm

Use: These romantic fictions hold a special allure for the young generation.

BEDAZZLE (Verb)

Meaning: To enchant someone or to thrill or excite someone

Use: Fans bedazzled by movie stars.

BEWITCH (Verb)

Meaning: 1) to attract someone in a way that seems magical.

2) to use magic to make someone do, think or say something.

Use: According to the historians, Boyan was not a magician in the sense that he was able to cast spells, bewitch people and transform into animals, but he was a learned man and a poet.

FASCINATE (Verb)

Meaning: To cause (someone) to be very interested in something or someone

Use: Painting of M.F Hussain may fail to fascinate connoisseurs of art but they never fail to create new controversy.

ENTHRALL (Verb)

Meaning: To hold the attention of (someone) by being very exciting, interesting or beautiful

Use: He was starring her definitely enthralled by her beauty.

MESMERIZE (Verb)

Meaning: To hold the attention of (someone) entirely

Use: She had deep sea blue eyes that mesmerized most men they came across.

ENCHANT (Verb)

Meaning: To attract and hold the attention of (someone) by being interesting, pretty etc.

Use: Visitors will be enchanted, captivated, and charmed by the beauty of the place.

BEGUILE (Verb)

Meaning: 1) To trick or deceive someone.

2) To attract someone.

Use: Her smile beguiled Paul, and for a very brief second he forgot what he was supposed to do.

 

Explanation: Defer means to delay. It has second meaning also. It also means to respect someone. Deference (Noun) means a way of behaving that shows respect for someone or something. We covered word Deference (Noun) in series for Respect.

ADJOURN (Verb)

Meaning: To end something (such as a meeting) for a period of time

Use: Speaker adjourned parliament because pandemonium was created by opposition leaders demanding the resignation of Prime Minister.

PROTRACT (Verb)

Meaning: To delay

Use: Seeking to delay the union member’ s vote, the management team tried to protract the negotiations endlessly.

PROCRASTINATE (Verb)

Meaning: To be slow or late about doing something that should be done

Use: when you are under too much emotional stress, you vacillate and procrastinate, especially when it has something to do with money.

PROROGUE (Verb)

Meaning: 1) Postpone

2) To suspend a session of parliament without dissolving it.

Use: The chairman has prorogued the meeting.

PROROGATE (Verb)

Meaning: 1) Postpone

2) To suspend a session of parliament without dissolving it.

Use: Parley was prorogated until the following morning.

DEFER (Verb)

Meaning: To postpone or delay

Use: Israeli gentleman wanted to defer joinning military but he was forced to join military.

 

 

INADVERTENT (Adj.)

Meaning: Not intended or planned

Use: .

UNWITTING (Adj.)

Meaning: 1) Unaware

2) Not intended or planned

Use: Sam made an unwitting mistake when he forgot his flat keys in his office; so, he had to go into his garage for getting hidden duplicate keys.

 

 

ASPERSION (Noun)

Meaning: 1) Untrue statement meant to harm someone’ s reputation

2) Act of harming someone’ s reputation by making untrue statement

Use: Shirley cast aspersions on Bill’s integrity and honesty as a reporter.

CALUMNY (Noun)

Meaning: 1) Untrue statement meant to harm someone’ s reputation

2) Act of harming someone’ s reputation by making untrue statement

Use: Accusations of abuse were pure extortive calumny about the higher prices being charged by the store is a malicious effort to make more money.

SCURRILITY (Noun)

Meaning: Untrue statement meant to harm someone’ s reputation

Use: In a heated political debate, She unleashed a torrent of scurrility on her opponent.

SLANDER (Noun)

Meaning: The crime of making false statements that damage a person ‘s reputation

Use: It is inappropriate to utter such slander about a neighbor.

SLANDER (Verb)

Meaning: Make false and harmful statements about

Use: Not long ago, however, the vice president filed a slander suit against some members of the Taiwan media.

LIBEL (Noun)

Meaning: Act of harming someone’ s reputation by making untrue statement

Use: The angry statements in the newspaper appeared almost to be statements of libel.

LIBEL (Verb)

Meaning: To harm someone’ s reputation for making untrue statement

Use: The defeated candidate tried to libel his opponents after the election.

 

 

Explanation: Libel (Noun), slander (Noun) and slur (Noun) mean act of harming someone’ s reputation by making an untrue statement. Asperse (Verb), Traduce (Verb), Libel (Verb), Slander (Verb) and Slur (Verb) means to harm someone’ s reputation by making an untrue statement. Asperse (Verb) has second meaning also. It means to sprinkle with holy water. Slur (Verb) has second meaning also. It means to speak in an unclear way. Slur (Verb) has third meaning also. It means to perform a group of musical notes in a flowing way

ASPERSE (Verb)

Meaning: 1) To harm someone’ s reputation by making an untrue statement.

2) To sprinkle with holy water

Use: How dare you asperse my character.

TRADUCE (Verb)

Meaning: To harm someone’ s reputation by making untrue statement

Use: The newspaper columnist was obviously traducing, or defaming, the politician in her newspaper column.

LIBEL (Verb)

Meaning: To harm someone’ s reputation by making untrue statement

Use: The defeated candidate tried to libel his opponents after the election.

LIBEL (Noun)

Meaning: Act of harming someone’ s reputation by making untrue statement

Use: The angry statements in the newspaper appeared almost to be statements of libel.

SLANDER (Verb)

Meaning: To harm someone’ s reputation by making untrue statement

Use: Not long ago, however, the vice president filed a slander suit against some members of the Taiwan media.

SLANDER (Noun)

Meaning: Act of harming someone’ s reputation by making untrue statement

Use: It is inappropriate to utter such slander about a neighbor.

SLUR (Verb)

Meaning: 1) To harm someone’ s reputation by making untrue statement

2) To speak in an unclear way

3) To perform a group of musical notes in a flowing way

Use: Voters don’ t like political advertisements in which opponents slur one another.

SLUR (Noun)

Meaning: 1) Act of harming someone’ s reputation by making untrue statement.

2) A curved line indicating that musical notes are to be slurred.

Use: Polls revealed that the front-runner’ s standing had been damaged by the slurs and innuendoes circulated by his opponent’ s staff.

 

AUDACIOUS (Adj.)

Meaning: 1) Very confident and daring

2) Very bold

Use: The soldier was an audacious warrior when he fought the enemy in order to save his comrades.

DAUNTLESS (Adj.)

Meaning: Very brave

Use: The comic book hero was the most dauntless and brave character ever to be imagined.

UNDAUNTED (Adj.)

Meaning: Very brave

Use: The loss of the football game did not leave the coach undaunted in his determination to have his team become the champions of his league.

FEARLESS (Adj.)

Meaning: Very brave

Use: Skydiving is one sport that tends to attract fearless types.

GALLANT (Adj.)

Meaning: Showing courage or very brave

Use: He was quite a gallant, primping more than either of his sisters.

DOUGHTY (Adj.)

Meaning: Brave, strong and determined

Use: The doughty heroes of old.

INTREPID (Adj.)

Meaning: Very bold or brave

Use:  In many fairy tales, the most courageous and intrepid young man, showing much endurance and determination, was the one who was chosen to marry the princess.

VALIANT (Adj.)

Meaning: Very brave or courageous

Use: Despite their valiant efforts, they lost the game.

VALOROUS (Adj.)

Meaning: Very brave or courageous

Use:  Lizzie made the valorous decision to follow the trail of the Klondike Gold Rush, hiking up the mountains, camping in the wild, etc.

GUTSY (Adj.)

Meaning: Brave and determined

Use: That was a very gutsy decision.

STOUT (Adj.)

Meaning: 1) Thick and strong

2) Brave and determined

Use: She was stout, middle-aged, and veiny in the cheeks and nose.

STALWART (Adj.)

Meaning: Very loyal and physically strong

Use: Jake was respected for being a stalwart who was not only a very good coach at his university but also as a deacon in his church.

 

Explanation: Pluck (Verb) means to pull (something) quickly to remove it. For example: – <He was plucking flower>. It has second meaning also. Pluck (Noun) means courage.

PLUCK (Noun)

Meaning: 1) To pull something quickly to remove it

2) Courage and determination

Use: She showed pluck in getting up on stage.

VALOR (Noun)

Meaning: Courage or bravery

Use:  Mike demonstrated great valor when he rushed to the burning car and pulled the unconscious driver out after it had crashed into the back end of a big truck.

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