CHAPTER 5 on Vocabulary


Meaning- 1) A science that deals with the goal of changing ordinary metal into gold.

2) A power or process that changes or transforms everything into the mysterious or impressive way.



Meaning- 1) to reduce the pain or trouble of (something).

2) to make (something) less painful, difficult or severe.

Mnemonic trick- The word alleviate can be memorized by thinking that it is made up of two words ‘all’ and ‘vitamin’. If I eat tablets of all vitamins, symptoms of the disease will alleviate. Therefore, alleviate means to reduce the pain



  • The drugs did nothing to alleviate her pain.
  • The injection that doctor gave Susan was intended to alleviate the pain caused by her infected tooth.
  • Jim found that by keeping himself busy it helped to alleviate his sadness that was caused by the death of his lovable dog.




Meaning- tall and masculine kind of woman

Mnemonic trick- Amazon contains word amma. She turned from amazon into amma. Therefore, amazon means tall, strong and masculine type of woman.





  • Actress Connie Nielson resembles an Amazon because she is tall and physically powerful.
  • I felt dwarfed, standing beside this redheaded amazon.



Meaning- 1) Gives reference to continual fluctuation (as between one thing and its opposite).

2) Relating to the uncertainty as to what course to follow; conveying an indecision.


  • Mike has ambivalent feelings as to whether his new car is worth so much money.
  • Mary had been ambivalent about getting married during her early years; now, since she is thirsty, she is eager to accept my proposal of marriage.
  • The senator had an ambivalent feeling about which way he would vote on the new bill.

                                                          ANACHRONISM (Noun)

Meaning- 1) Anything done or existing out of date: hence, anything that was proper to a former age, but is, or, if it existed, would be, out of harmony with the present.

2) Something (such as a word, an object, or an event) that is not in its chronological or historical order.

Mnemonic trick- a/an is a root word for not and chon is a root word for time. Therefore, anachronism means something that is mistakenly placed with respect to time in a story, movie etc. or something that is not in its chronological or historical order.



  • The novel is full of anachronisms.
  • He is good in acting but he is old-fashioned. He is seen by many of his colleagues as an anachronism.
  • This video will show ten biggest anachronisms in Hollywood movies.






Meaning- 1) The main character in a play or book

2) An active supporter of a policy or a movement especially one that is trying to change something.


  • Indira Gandhi was the main protagonist of the 1971 Liberation war.
  • Anna Hazare was a leading protagonist in the movement for passing Lokpal Bill.
  • Milton Friedman is usually cited as the leading American protagonist of monetarism.




Meaning- Someone who is opposing or in conflict with another person.



  • Rahul’ s antagonist in the debate was smarter than he was.

Combined Uses-

  • The objective of the antagonist in the story is always to destroy the protagonist.
  • The protagonist had to defend himself against the antagonist.
  • At a recent production of the story of the prince and the poor girl, the character of the stepsister who was the antagonist was exaggerated and made the audience laugh; however, the poor girl who was the protagonist in the story was portrayed as gentle and sweet.


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