CHAPTER 9 on Word Groups

Explanation: Remit (Verb) means to cancel or free someone from (a punishment, debt etc.). It has second meaning also. It also means to send money as a payment. Pardon (Verb) means to forgive. Pardon (Noun) means forgiveness. Vindicate (Adj.) differs slightly from other words. Vindicate may refer to things as well as persons that have been subjected to critical attack or imputation of guilt and implies a clearing effected by proving the unfairness of such criticism or blame.

EXONERATE (Verb)

Meaning: To prove that someone is not guilty of a crime or responsible for a problem, bad situation etc.

Use: Tamika’s attorney claims that the new evidence will completely exonerate her from the charges made by her former employer.

EXCULPATE (Verb)

Meaning: To prove that someone is not guilty of doing something wrong

Use: She was exculpated of the crime when the criminal confessed.

ABSOLVE (Verb)

Meaning: To make (someone) free from guilt, responsibility etc.

Use: Mr. Johnson, the lawyer, could not get the court to absolve his client of responsibility for the accident.

REMIT (Verb)

Meaning: 1) To cancel or free someone from (a punishment, debt etc.)

2) To send money as a payment

Use: The excess of the sentence over 12 months were remitted.

REMIT (Noun)

Meaning: An area of responsibility and authority

Use: The committee was becoming caught up in issues that did not fall within its remit.

ACQUIT (Verb)

Meaning: To decide that someone is not guilty of a crime

Use: The jury acquitted Jerome of the charges of driving while intoxicated since he was simply driving too slowly on the express way and had never drunk anything alcoholic.

PARDON (Verb)

Meaning: To forgive or to officially say that someone who is guilty of crime is allowed to go free

Use: “When Roy arrived at the business meeting, he asked the chairman to pardon his absence from the meeting this morning, because he had to go to the dentist for an emergency replacement of a crown that had fallen off his tooth.”

PARDON (Noun)

Meaning: Forgiveness

Use: “The governor issued a pardon to the man who had been previously convicted of a store robbery.”

VINDICATE (Verb)

Meaning: 1) Clear of blame or suspicion

2) Show to be justified

Use: The confession of the real criminal immediately vindicated Jasper who the police had held for questioning about the break-in of the local jewelry store.

 

Explanation: Malign (Adj.) means harmful or intended to cause harm. It has second meaning also. Malign (Verb) means to criticize someone. Chide (verb) means to scold gently. Lampoon (Verb) means to publicly criticize (someone or something) in a way that causes laughter. Lampoon (Noun) means cartoon, writing etc. that makes fun of a well-known person or thing.  Admonish (Verb), Reproach (Verb), Reprove (Verb), Reprimand (Verb) and Rebuke (Verb) implies criticism but not harsh criticism. Lampoon (Noun & Verb) has also been covered in series for To make fun/act of making fun.

ADMONISH (Verb)

Meaning: To speak to (someone) in a way that expresses disapproval or criticism

Use: The crossing guard at the busy intersection admonished the pedestrians to look both ways before attempting to cross the street.

ASSAIL (Verb)

Meaning: To attack or criticize (someone or something) in a violent or angry way

Use: As a politician, Thomas was always ready to assail his opponents with slander.

BERATE (Verb)

Meaning: To criticize (someone) in a loud and angry way

Use: The supervisor lost control when he was berating his construction crew for the collapse of the building they were working on

CASTIGATE (Verb)

Meaning: To criticize (someone) harshly

Use: The president of the company was castigated in the local newspaper and television for making millions of dollars while his business went bankrupt.

CHASTISE (Verb)

Meaning: To criticize (someone) harshly for doing something wrong

Use: Nina chastised her two children for playing ball in the living room, especially since they broke a mirror on the wall!

CHIDE (Verb)

Meaning: To scold (someone) gently

Use: She chided him for not replying to her letters.

EXCORIATE (Verb)

Meaning: To criticize (someone or something) very harshly

Use: Critics excoriating him for other aspects of his film show an equal lack of sensitivity to the challenges that come with highly structured storytelling.

FULMINATE (Verb)

Meaning: To protest strongly or to criticize

Use: Bicyclists often fulminate at some automobile drivers because they drive in the bike lanes and create dangerous situations for those who are peddling there.

LAMBASTE (Verb)

Meaning: To criticize (someone or something) very harshly

Use: The Japanese Prime Minister has been lambasted for his handling of the crises in Japan.

LAMPOON (Verb)

Meaning: To criticize (someone or something) in a way that causes laughter

Use: The politician was lampooned in cartoons.

LAMPOON (Noun)

Meaning: Cartoon, writing etc. that makes fun of a well-known person or thing

Use: He said such ridiculous things that he was often the target of lampoons in the press.

MALIGN (Adj.)

Meaning: Harmful or intended to cause harm

Use: We should not believe that this malign aspect of human nature which sleeps in all of us has gone away or will ever go away.

MALIGN (Verb)

Meaning: To criticize (someone or something) harshly or unfairly

Use: The school bully was always maligning other students on the playground by calling them vulgar names.

PAN (Verb)

Meaning: To criticize severely

Use: The playwright was miserable when the critics panned it unanimously.

PILLORY (Verb)

Meaning: To publicly criticize (someone) in a very harsh way

Use: The mayor was pilloried by the press and the local citizens for his bad behavior and the criticisms kept coming in for several days.

RAIL (Verb)

Meaning: To scold or complaint in harsh or abusive language

Use: A patient was railing against the medical staff because she had slipped and fallen on the floor in her hospital room at night and she couldn’t get up or contact anyone to help her.

REPROVE (Verb)

Meaning: To criticize or correct (someone) usually in a gentle way

Use: He was reproved for obscenity.

REVILE (Verb)

Meaning: To speak about (someone or something) in a very critical or insulting wat

Use: There is no excuse to revile the man since he is not here to explain what happened.

UPBRAID (Verb)

Meaning: To criticize severely

Use: His wife upbraided him for his irresponsible handling of the family finances.

VILIFY (Verb)

Meaning: To say or write very harsh and critical things about (someone or something)

Use: He has been vilified in the press.

CENSURE (Verb)

Meaning: To officially criticize (someone or something) strongly and publicly

Use: The judge will censure the local hockey coach when the coach appears in court.

CENSURE (Noun)

Meaning: Official strong criticism

Use: Verna was held up for public censure because of her radical views regarding birth control.

REPROACH (Verb)

Meaning: To speak in an angry and critical way to (someone)

Use: Our neighbor loudly reproached us for tromping through his yard.

REPROACH (Noun)

Meaning: An expression of strong disapproval

Use: Accusations and reproaches from both parties made it difficult to pursue discussions.

REPRIMAND (Verb)

Meaning: To speak in an angry and critical way to (someone)

Use: She cleared her throat as a way of reproaching us for having our elbows on the table.

REPRIMAND (Noun)

Meaning: An expression of strong disapproval

Use: Mr. Carsten, the butler, gave a reprimand to the servant who forgot his white gloves which were deemed essential for working in the dining room.

REBUKE (Verb)

Meaning: To speak in an angry and critical way to (someone)

Use: she had rebuked him for drinking too much.

REBUKE (Noun)

Meaning: An expression of strong disapproval

Use: Delivering a stinging rebuke to the Congress, calling for an end to backstabbing and arguing.

 

ACCLAIM (Verb)

Meaning: To praise (someone or something) in a very strong and enthusiastic way

Use: Jim has been acclaimed as one of the best musicians in last night’s performance.

ACCLAIM (Noun)

Meaning: An expression of praise

Use: Marie received several positive acclaims for her performance in the ballet.

EXALT (Verb)

Meaning: 1) To praise (someone or something) highly

2) To raise (someone or something) to a higher level

Use: Bertha’s behavior in her political position has exalted the power and prestige of her office.

EXTOL (Verb)

Meaning: To praise (someone or something) highly

Use: Professor Stanley extolled the wonderful contributions to the linguistics section of the university that were made by his retiring colleague.

HAIL (Verb)

Meaning: To greet with enthusiastic approval

Use: She has been hailed by us for her realistic acting.

 

 

Explanation: Eulogy (Noun) deviates slightly. Eulogy (Noun) means formal expression for praise at the time of a funeral. Accolade (Noun)means an award or expression of praise. Citation (Noun) means a formal statement that praises a person. It has second meaning also. It also means an official order to appear before a court of law.

ACCLAIM (Verb)

Meaning: To praise (someone or something) in a very strong and enthusiastic way

Use: Jim has been acclaimed as one of the best musicians in last night’s performance.

ACCLAIM (Noun)

Meaning: An expression of praise

Use: Marie received several positive acclaims for her performance in the ballet.

HAIL (Noun)

Meaning: An exclamation of greeting or praise

Use: She deserves hail for all her charitable works.

ACCOLADE (Noun)

Meaning: An award or an expression of praise

Use: The novel received accolades from various reviewers including positive and critics.

PLAUDIT (Noun)

Meaning: 1) An act or round of applause

2) Enthusiastic approval

Use: The audience gave the pianist long plaudits because his musical performance was so magnificent!

PANEGYRIC (Noun)

Meaning: Something (such as a speech or a piece of writing) that praises someone or something

Use: Blushing at all the praise heaped upon him by the speakers, the modest hero said, “I don’ t deserve such panegyrics”.

PAEAN (Noun)

Meaning: A song of joy, praise or victory

Use: On their tour of Greece, Cleo and Chuck attended a ceremony at which the actors sang a paean to the gods and deities.

ENCOMIUM (Noun)

Meaning: Glowing and warmly enthusiastic praise

Use: An encomium is usually a formally spoken expression of high approval or admiration and tribute to a person for his or her outstanding achievements.

EULOGY (Noun)

Meaning: A speech that praises someone who has died

Use: The speech was so full of praise for the president, it sounded like a eulogy instead of a nomination speech.

CITATION (Noun)

Meaning: 1) Formal statement that praises a person.

2) an official order to appear before a court of law.

Use: He received a citation for reckless driving.

COMMENDATION (Noun)

Meaning: 1) The act of praising or approving of someone or something

Use:  Little Susi was very courageous as she rode on her tricycle for the first time without falling or injuring herself and so she received a lot of commendations from her parents.

 

FACETIOUS (Adj.)

Meaning: Treating serious issues with inappropriate humor

Use: Hank was making facetious remarks which made everybody at the party laugh.

FRIVOLOUS (Adj.)

Meaning: 1) Not having any serious purpose or value

2) Not treating things seriously

Use: At least twice a year, Antonio bought something frivolous just to satisfy his ego.

FLIPPANT (Adj.)

Meaning: Not showing proper seriousness or respect

Use: The young man shocked everyone by making flippant remarks while his father’s will was being read.

LEVITY (Noun)

Meaning: 1) A lack of seriousness

2) Humorous treatment of a serious matter

Use: The teacher wouldn’t tolerate any levities by her students; especially, when she was trying to explain important issues in her classroom.

 

 

Explanation: Pulverize (Verb) means to crush to fine particles. It has second meaning also. It also means to destroy or defeat. Rout (Verb) means to defeat. Rout (Noun) means disastrous defeat or state of wild confusion. Subjugate (Verb) means to defeat and gain control of someone or something by use of force.

PULVERIZE (Verb)

Meaning: 1) To crush to fine particles

2) To destroy or defeat

Use: Frozen snake liver was pulverized into a fine powder in liquid nitrogen.

ROUT (Verb)

Meaning: To defeat

Use: The reinforcements were able to rout the enemy.

ROUT (Noun)

Meaning: Disastrous defeat or state of wild confusion

Use: From the hillside, the spectators watched the rout of the army after the battle.

SUBJUGATE (Verb)

Meaning: to defeat and gain control of someone or something by use of force

Use: The Roman armies were able to subjugate most of what is now known as Europe.

VANQUISH (Verb)

Meaning: To defeat (someone) completely in a war, battle etc.

Use: They were vanquished in battle.

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