CHAPTER 90 on Vocabulary


Meaning- expressing unfair or false criticism which is likely to damage someone’ s reputation


Synonym explanation- Scurrilous (or slanderous) means generally false statements which are intended to damage someone’ s reputation. Opprobrious means statements which are intended to criticize someone or something. For example: media made opprobrious statements about immoral behavior of opposition. Opprobrious is also used for people deserving criticism or disapproval. For example: Adam’ s opprobrious co-worker in the sales department was fired. Contumelious means insolently abusive and humiliating. For example: Sam made contumelious remarks to the police officer when he  was stopped for driving too fast in the town.


  • Angry truck drivers frequently use scurrilous language.
  • Scurrilous attacks on the senator.
  • He wrote a scurrilous piece about me in the local press.



Meaning- to move quickly with small short steps

Mnemonic trick- The word scurry contains word curry. While eating if curry gets finished we scurry to kitchen for getting curry. Therefore, scurry means to move quickly with small short steps.

Synonym- SCAMPER


  • The mouse scurried across the floor.
  • She said good-bye and scurried back to work.
  • Ants scurried around the pile of rotting food.



Meaning- 1) The act of separating from a nation or state and becoming independent.

2) formal withdrawal from an organization.

Mnemonic trick- The word secession came from word secede. Secede means to separate from a nation. Therefore, secession means the act of separating from a nation or state and becoming independent.

2) The word secession sounds similar to scissor. We use scissor to cut or separate something. Therefore, scissor means the act of separating from a nation or state.



  • The Ukraine’ s secession from Soviet Union.
  • Putin got succeeded in doing Crimea’ s secession from Ukraine.
  • Janet had to write a formal statement to ensure that her secession as a member of the political party was confirmed.



Meaning-  to keep yourself/somebody away from contact with other people.

Mnemonic trick- The word seclude sounds similar to word include. Seclude is almost opposite of the word include. Seclude means to keep yourself away from the contact with other people.



  • The monks secluded themselves from rest of the society.
  • Harry secluded himself and only sees his mother once in a while.
  • Jerome secluded a home deep in the forest where nobody ever goes and lives as a hermit who has no contact with other individuals.



Meaning- the use of words or actions that are intended to encourage people to oppose a government or disrespect of republic.

Mnemonic trick- The word sedition contains word edition. The new edition of the book contains seditious material that is intended to disrespect of republic. Therefore, sedition means disrespect of republic or use of words or actions that are intended to encourage people to oppose a government.



  • The leaders of the group have been arrested and charged with sedition.
  • Hardik Patel was arrested and charged withsedition because he wrote something that urged people to rebel against the political leadership of their country.
  • During left’ s tenure sedition and profligacy were rampant.
  • He hurried back to Kashmir to trample on the seeds of sedition sown by separatists.
  • When Theseus returned to Athens he found that a sedition had been stirred up.



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