CHAPTER 92 on Vocabulary

SHARD (Noun)

Meaning- a piece of broken glass, cup, container etc. especially one found in an archaeological dig.

Mnemonic trick- The word shard contains word hard. Hard glass breaks into shards. Therefore, shard means piece of broken glass, cup, container etc.


  • By carefully examining shards collected from an archaeological dig, we got information about early civilization.
  • Shards of glass have been cemented into the top of the wall to stop people climbing over.
  • A shard of hope that still pervades me.


SHEAR (Verb)

Meaning- 1) to cut the hair, wool etc. off an animal.

2) to cut off a person’ s hair or to cut off something.

Mnemonic trick- The word shear contains word hear. Hear sounds similar to hair. We normally cut off long hairs of our body. Therefore, shear means to cut off hair, wool etc. off an animal or a person. There is a confusing word sheer. Sheer is a cutting instrument usually similar but larger than a pair of scissors that is usually referred to in the plural.

Synonym- SHAVE, TRIM


  • The farmer taught her how to shear sheep.
  • The gardener sheared the lawn.
  • It needs concentration to learn to shear sheep so the sheerer does not nick them.
  • He bought a new pair of shears so I could shear the lawn and bushes.


SHIRK (Verb)

Meaning- to avoid doing something that you are supposed to do because of laziness.

Mnemonic trick- The word shirk sounds similar to shark. If you shirk from doing your duty, Shark will eat you. Therefore, shirk means to avoid doing something that you are supposed to do because of laziness.


  • He is too scrupulous to shirk his duty.
  • A general feeling of indolence forces him to shirk his work.
  • I shall not shirk from my obligations.
  • She never shirked from her responsibilities.
  • For getting promotion, you must do your work without shirking.



Meaning- of relating to, or expressed in relation to stars. For example: sidereal time is the time that is measured by the stars rather than by the sun. Sidereal period is the time required for a celestial body in the solar system to complete one revolution with respect to the fixed stars.

Mnemonic trick- mency in word clemency sounds like mercy. Clemency means mercy or kindness shown to somebody when they are being punished.


  • The telescope has relayed extraordinary images of distant sidereal bodies.
  • Of these the more noteworthy dealt with the distribution of stars, star clusters and nebulae, and the construction of the sidereal universe.



Meaning- a position/office/job that requires little or no work but provides a salary.

Mnemonic trick- The word sinecure contains word sine and cure. Sine sounds similar to sign and cure sounds similar to karo. ‘SIGN KARO ORR SALARY LOO’. Therefore, sinecure means a job or position in which someone is paid to do little or no work.


  • She found him an exalted sinecure as a fellow of the library of congress.
  • Sharon worked for a hotel where she was a sinecure who occasionally took reservations for guests to stay.
  • He was transferred to the sinecure office, but held it only till November.


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