CHAPTER 94 on Vocabulary


Meaning- causing a person to become tired and ready to fall asleep

Mnemonic trick- The word soporific contains word so. Hindi word ‘so’ means sleep. Therefore, soporific means something that causes a person to become tired and ready to fall asleep.



  • The soporific heat of summer.
  • This medication is soporific, so do not drive after taking it.
  • Some people find a glass of wine to be a soporific addition to night meal.
  • The politician’ s soporific speech put many of those in the auditorium to sleep.
  • My mother complained that the soporific weather was making her feel sluggish and apathetic.
  • The police told reuters they had no information about the possible use of soporific gas in the air conditioning system.



Meaning- 1) immoral or dishonest.

2) very dirty

Mnemonic trick- The word sordid contains word sor and did. Sor sounds similar to sorry. After doing sordid thing they did not even say sorry. It shows how sordid they are. Therefore, sordid means immoral or dishonest or very dirty.



  • He managed to rise above the sordid streets upon which he grew up.
  • A sordid affair involving bribery and corruption in high places.
  • The head of the gang operated a sordid entertainment complex where he encouraged people to gamble and lose their money and reputations.
  • Despite growing up in a sordid and poor neighborhood, the young woman went to school and became a teacher.
  • The evil man used sordid methods to entice new immigrants to work for him; unfortunately, he exploited or took advantage of them.
  • The public often displays a morbid curiosity about the sordid facts of life in the slums as described by socially conscious authors; such as, Charles Dickens.



Meaning- falsely appearing to be true but actually false

Mnemonic trick- The word specious sounds similar to spices. Cook in restaurant always gives specious excuses for making spicy food. Specious excuses means false excuses. Therefore, specious means falsely appearing to be true but actually false.



  • That is the most ridiculous and specious argument I have ever herd.
  • Specious arguments of a demagogue.
  • This is a specious argument, but possibly you may get a number of unthinking people to believe it.
  • It was obvious that he was making a specious excuse.
  • This argument is rather specious than sound.
  • The park provided a spacious playground for children. The mayor presented specious economic reasons as to why it should be closed.
  • You may create an inspirational and visually resplendent strategy map but without accountability its value is specious.



Meaning- to argue noisily about something that is not very important.

Mnemonic trick- The word squabble is made up of combination of two words ‘squirrel’ and ‘babble’. If two squirrels are babbling too much, it means that they are squabbling.


Synonym explanation- Altercation means noisy heated angry dispute. For examples: She got into several altercations with the coach this season. Squabble stresses childish and unseemly dispute over petty matters, but it need not imply bitterness or anger. Quarrel means heated verbal contention which may destroy relationship.


  • My sisters were squabbling over what to watch on television.
  • They were squabbling over who would pay for the lunch this time.



Meaning- 1) very devoted or loyal to a person, belief or cause.

2) not changing or immovable.

Mnemonic trick- The word steadfast contains word stead. Stead sounds similar to steady. Steady means fixed or not changing. Therefore, steadfast means something not changing or one who has immovable devotion or loyalty.



  • He was a steadfast supporter of separatist in Kashmir.
  • Steadfast friend or steadfast loyalty.
  • Carol was a steadfast student at the university despite the fact that she had to work at a restaurant several hours each day in order to pay for her tuition and other living expenses.




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