CHAPTER 6 on Vocabulary

SANGFROID (OR APLOMB OR EQUANIMITY) (Noun)

 

Meaning- the ability to stay calm and polite in a dangerous or stressful situation.

Synonym- COMPOSURE, PLACIDITY, TRANQUILITY

Uses-

  • I was amazed at how he retained his sangfroid throughout the discussion.
  • They committed the robbery with complete sangfroid.
  • Despite the workload, I managed to maintain my sangfroid and to provide composure, solid leadership, and support to my staff.
  • Nothing could disturb his sangfroid.

 

APOCRYPHAL (Adj.)

Meaning- Of questionable authenticity; false.

Uses-

  • I am sorry, but this putative letter from George Washington that you found at a garage sale is clearly apocryphal.
  • When Fay’s friend said that he believed in the Bible, she wasn’t sure if he meant the apocryphal writings, too.
  • The literature professor said that, in his opinion, most “rags-to-riches” stories turn out to be apocryphal.

      

APOSTATE (OR DESERTER OR RENEGADE) (Noun)

Meaning- 1) a person whose beliefs have changed and who no longer belongs to a religious or political group.

Synonym- DEFECTOR, RECREANT

Uses-

  • An apostate from one political party later became one of its harshest critics.
  • Social renegades gave rise to revolution against the government.
  • These renegades have rebelled against and rejected heaven, so they must, in turn, be denied life.
  • The honest man must be a perpetual renegade, the life of an honest man a perpetual infidelity. For the man who wishes to remain faithful must take himself perpetually unfaithful to all the continual, successive, indefatigable errors.

          

PARAGON (OR EPITOME OR APOTHEOSIS) (Noun)

Meaning- 1) A perfect example.

2) A person or thing that is perfect or excellent in some way and should be considered a model or example to be copied.

Synonym- PARADIGM, PROTOTYPE, QUINTESSENCE

Uses-

  • Mahatma Gandhi was a paragon of virtue.
  • I make no claim to be a paragon.
  • A selfless desire to help others is the paragon of the virtue of charity.
  • Dawood Ibrahim was a paragon of vice.

        

APPOSITE (OR PERTINENT OR GERMANE) (Adj.)

Meaning- very appropriate or suitable for the occasion or situation

Mnemonic trick- The word apposite sounds similar to opposite. Apposite is the opposite of word opposite. Therefore, apposite does not mean something out of the point, it means something to the point.

Synonym- RELEVANT, TO THE POINT

Antonym- INAPPOSITE, IMPERTINENT,

Uses-

  • Media attacked mayor with apposite questions related to scam.
  • facts apposite to the dispute.
  • If you have less time, then it is the apposite source to consult from.
  • If have also added an apposite quotation to the definition.

                               

APPRAISE (Verb)

Meaning- 1) to place a value on.

2) to judge the worth of something or to say how much something is worth after you have carefully examined.

Synonym- ESTIMATE

Uses-

  • The ring must be appraised by a jeweler before it can be insured.
  • What is the property’ s appraised value?

 

 

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CHAPTER 5 on Vocabulary

ALCHEMY (Noun)

Meaning- 1) A science that deals with the goal of changing ordinary metal into gold.

2) A power or process that changes or transforms everything into the mysterious or impressive way.

 

ALLEVIATE (Adj.)

Meaning- 1) to reduce the pain or trouble of (something).

2) to make (something) less painful, difficult or severe.

Mnemonic trick- The word alleviate can be memorized by thinking that it is made up of two words ‘all’ and ‘vitamin’. If I eat tablets of all vitamins, symptoms of the disease will alleviate. Therefore, alleviate means to reduce the pain

Synonym- PALLIATE, ASSUAGE, RELIEVE

Uses-

  • The drugs did nothing to alleviate her pain.
  • The injection that doctor gave Susan was intended to alleviate the pain caused by her infected tooth.
  • Jim found that by keeping himself busy it helped to alleviate his sadness that was caused by the death of his lovable dog.

                                  

AMAZON (Noun)

 

Meaning- tall and masculine kind of woman

Mnemonic trick- Amazon contains word amma. She turned from amazon into amma. Therefore, amazon means tall, strong and masculine type of woman.

 

 

 

Uses-

  • Actress Connie Nielson resembles an Amazon because she is tall and physically powerful.
  • I felt dwarfed, standing beside this redheaded amazon.

 

AMBIVALENT (Adj.)

Meaning- 1) Gives reference to continual fluctuation (as between one thing and its opposite).

2) Relating to the uncertainty as to what course to follow; conveying an indecision.

Uses-

  • Mike has ambivalent feelings as to whether his new car is worth so much money.
  • Mary had been ambivalent about getting married during her early years; now, since she is thirsty, she is eager to accept my proposal of marriage.
  • The senator had an ambivalent feeling about which way he would vote on the new bill.

                                                          ANACHRONISM (Noun)

Meaning- 1) Anything done or existing out of date: hence, anything that was proper to a former age, but is, or, if it existed, would be, out of harmony with the present.

2) Something (such as a word, an object, or an event) that is not in its chronological or historical order.

Mnemonic trick- a/an is a root word for not and chon is a root word for time. Therefore, anachronism means something that is mistakenly placed with respect to time in a story, movie etc. or something that is not in its chronological or historical order.

Synonym- INCONGRUOUS

Uses-

  • The novel is full of anachronisms.
  • He is good in acting but he is old-fashioned. He is seen by many of his colleagues as an anachronism.
  • This video will show ten biggest anachronisms in Hollywood movies.

 

PROTAGONIST (Noun) and ANTAGONIST (Noun)

 

PROTAGONIST (Noun)

 

Meaning- 1) The main character in a play or book

2) An active supporter of a policy or a movement especially one that is trying to change something.

Uses-

  • Indira Gandhi was the main protagonist of the 1971 Liberation war.
  • Anna Hazare was a leading protagonist in the movement for passing Lokpal Bill.
  • Milton Friedman is usually cited as the leading American protagonist of monetarism.

ANTAGONIST (Noun)

 

 

Meaning- Someone who is opposing or in conflict with another person.

Synonym- ENEMY, OPPONENT

Uses-

  • Rahul’ s antagonist in the debate was smarter than he was.

Combined Uses-

  • The objective of the antagonist in the story is always to destroy the protagonist.
  • The protagonist had to defend himself against the antagonist.
  • At a recent production of the story of the prince and the poor girl, the character of the stepsister who was the antagonist was exaggerated and made the audience laugh; however, the poor girl who was the protagonist in the story was portrayed as gentle and sweet.

 

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CHAPTER 4 on Vocabulary

ACROPHOBIA (Noun), AGORAPHOBIA (Noun), CLAUSTROPHOBIA (Noun) AND NYCTOPHOBIA (Noun)

ACROPHOBIA (Noun)

 

Meaning- Fear of being at great heights; such as, elevators, climbing ladders, flying in airplanes etc.

 

AGORAPHOBIA (Noun)

Meaning- Fear of being in open or public places. It is the fear of leaving the sheltering protection of homes, friends etc.

 

CLAUSTROPHOBIA (Noun)

 

Meaning- fear of being in closed spaces.

 

NYCTOPHOBIA (Noun)

Meaning- fear of being in darkness

ACUMEN (Noun)

Meaning- Ability to think clearly and make good decision

Synonym- SHREWDNESS, ASTUTENESS, SHARPNESS, INTELLIGENCE, CANNINESS

Uses-

  • Susan is a woman who has considerable business and financial acumen.
  • Her political acumen won her the election.
  • Journalist was raising question on politician ‘s acumen.

DEFT (Adj.) and ADROIT (Adj.) and DEXTEROUS (Adj.)  

Explanation- Words deft, adroit and dexterous are synonyms of each other. Deft, adroit and dexterous means having or showing great skill or cleverness. But their meaning slightly differs from each other.        

                          

DEFT (Adj.)

 

Meaning- having or showing great skill or cleverness. It mainly implies expertness and quickness in manipulations.

Uses-

  • His deft fingers were one of his greatest musical assets.
  • Monroe was a deft writer as expressed by his witty descriptions and comments in the newspaper articles.

 

ADROIT (Adj.)

 

 

 

Meaning- having or showing great skill or cleverness. It mainly implies innovative and proficient even when under pressure.

Uses-

  • Leena was an adroit negotiator for her company.
  • The magician’ s adroit response to the failure of his trick won applause.
  • He is adroit at handling problems.

 

DEXTEROUS (Adj.)

Meaning- having or showing great skill or cleverness. It mainly implies skillful and competent with the hands.

Uses-

  • The magician was so dexterous that we could not follow him as he performed his tricks.
  • The skill of his dexterous hands playing guitar and his soulful voice completely mesmerized the listeners.

AESTHETIC (Adj.) & AESTHETIC (Noun)

AESTHETIC (Adj.)

Meaning- 1) A reference to the sensitivity and appreciation of art and beauty.

2) A reference to something beautiful or attractive.

Mnemonic trick- The word aesthetic contains word ‘aes’. ‘aes’ sounds similar to ‘ash’. ‘ash’ is the nickname of actress Aishwarya Rai. Aishwarya Rai is most beautiful or aesthetic lady. Therefore, aesthetic gives reference to something beautiful or attractive or it gives reference to the sensitivity and appreciation of art and beauty.

Synonym- LOVELY, LOVESOME, PRETTY, ATTRACTIVE, RAVISHING

Uses-

  • There are economical as well as aesthetic reasons for making kitchen gardens at home.
  • The Taj Mahal show the esthetic concepts that the ancient artists created.
  • The aesthetic gemstones alone have a special beauty which is extended in the jewelry which incorporates them.

 

AESTHETIC (Noun)

Meaning- 1) The artistic or beautiful qualities of something.

2) A set of ideas or opinions about beauty or art.

Synonym- BEAUTY

Uses-

  • The aesthetics of the gemstones.
  • Sometimes an ascetic person can develop an acetic personality which spoils the aesthetics of the individual.

AFICIONADO (Noun)

Meaning- 1) An enthusiastic admirer or follower.

2) A fan.

Mnemonic trick- The word aficionado contains word ‘aficion’. ‘aficion’ sounds similar to affection. The word aficionado is used for someone who has strong affection for something. Therefore, aficionado means an enthusiastic admirer or follower or fan.

Synonym- ENTHUSIAST, FANATIC, DEVOTEE

Uses-

  • An aficionado of the old Bollywood movies who has seen all the old Bollywood movies several times.
  • Classical music aficionados can’ t wait for the concert of the veteran classical musician.

AGGRANDIZE (Adj.)

Meaning- 1) to make great or greater in power, honor, rank or wealth.

2) to exaggerate or to embellish an accomplishment.

Mnemonic trick- The word aggrandize contains word ‘grand’. ‘grand’ means something great and large. Therefore, aggrandize means to make great or greater in power, honor, rank or wealth.

Synonym- EXAGGERATE, OVERSTATE, GLORIFY, BOOST, MAGNIFY, INFLATE, EMBELLISH

Uses-

  • Being promoted, certainly aggrandized my responsibilities.
  • When describing the fish that he caught, Mike tends to aggrandize the length and weight of the fish.

 

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CHAPTER 3 on Vocabulary

ABSCOND (Verb)                                    

Meaning- leave hurriedly and secretly generally to escape from custody or avoid arrest.

Mnemonic trick- The word abscond contains word ‘cond’.’cond’ contains word ‘KAND’. ‘KAND’ karne ke baad to bhaagna hi padega. Therefore, abscond means to leave hurriedly and secretly generally to escape from custody or avoid arrest.

 

Synonym- ESCAPE, FLEE, RUN AWAY                        

Uses-

  • He absconded with the company funds.
  • The boy absconded from children’ s home.
  • Manager embezzled company’ s funds and absconded.
  • Several prisoners absconded from jail on the occasion of Diwali.

ABSOLVE (Verb)

                                                                            

Meaning-to state formally that somebody is not guilty or responsible for something.

Mnemonic trick- Case is solved now, absolve the prisoner. Therefore, absolve means to state formally that somebody is not guilty or responsible.

Synonym- REMIT, EXCUSE, FORGIVE, PARDON

Uses- 

    • That still does not absolve me from feeling like a bastard.
    • No amount of remorse will absolve ISIS militants, who committed heinous crimes.

 

                                                                            

ABSTEMIOUS (Adj.)

 

 Meaning- moderate in appetite or not allowing yourself to do things that are enjoyable.

Mnemonic trick- abstem in word abstemious, sounds like abstain. Therefore, abstemious means abstain from pleasures of life.

Synonym- SELF-DENYING, SELF-DISCIPLINED, SOBERED

Uses-

  • I always try to be an abstemious eater, but it is difficult to abstain from junk food.
  • It was too prissy, too refined, too abstemious, too French to be a good American writer.
  • He was a man of abstemious habits, charitable disposition, and impressive eloquence.
  • Priests live an abstemious lifestyle. They abstain from alcohol and marriage.

 

ABSTRUSE (OR OBSCURE) (Adj.)

 

 Meaning- complex, difficult to understand

Mnemonic trick- ABSTRUSE = ABS + TRUSE. It is abstruse task to know the truth of the origin of ABC.

Synonym- PERPLEXING, PUZZLING, ESOTERIC, PROFOUND, RAREFIED, HIGHBROW, RECONDITE

Uses-

    • Some scientist may understand the Einstein’s theory of relativity, but for students, it is an abstruse collection of ideas.
    • It is an abstruse task to understand the enigma of Bermuda triangle.

 

 

 

ACCOLADE (Noun)

Meaning- to make insane or to disturb the operations and functions of something.

Mnemonic trick- The word accolade contains word cola. Amir Khan got accolades from his fans after doing advertisement of Coca-Cola. Therefore, accolade means an award or an expression of praise.

Synonym- ENCOMIUM, EULOGY, PANEGYRIC, PEAN, COMMENDATION, LAURELS

Uses-

  • The novel received accolades from various reviewers.
  • Mack was very pleased with the accolade which he received at the university when he received the honorary degree.

 

ACME (OR APEX OR APOGEE) (Noun)

Meaning- The highest point of achievement or excellence.

Synonym- ZENITH, PINNACLE

Uses-

  • The acme of the Indian cricket team was its victory in the world cup.
  • Daniel is suffering from diabetes. Yesterday he ate chocolates. I think that his sugar level is at its acme.
  • Messi has reached the acme of his career. But he is still avid.
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CHAPTER 2 on Vocabulary

ABEYANCE (Noun)

 

 

Meaning- (1) Suspended actions.

(2) Condition in which legal ownership of an estate has not been established.

Uses of first meaning-

  • The sentence was held in abeyance until more proof could be obtained.
  • Mark was told that the building project would be held in abeyance until spring.

Uses of second meaning-

  • The uncertain abeyance of her father ‘s property caused a great deal of anxiety for him; so, the decision of the judge is considered to be important.

ABHOR (Verb)

 

Meaning- to hate (someone or something) very much.

Mnemonic trick- The word abhor contains word bhor. Hindi word ‘bhor’ means morning. I abhor getting up early in the morning. Therefore, abhor means hate.

 

Synonym- ABOMINATE, DESPISE, DETEST, EXECRATE, LOATHE

Uses-

  • I abhor the way people leave their trash at the picnic sites in the park.
  • I abhor this type of insulting behavior.
  • If you abhor racism, you can make a difference.
  • He abhors trolling.

 

ABLAZE (Adjective or Adverb)

Meaning- 1) In the process of burning.

2) glowing with light, color or emotion.

Uses-

  • Suddenly, the room was ablaze with light.
  • Her lips were ablaze with red lipstick.
  • The judge chose to show clemency to the truly repentant embezzler.
  • The school was set ablaze by unknown miscreants.

ABOMINABLE (OR HORRENDOUS OR DREADFUL OR LOATHSOME OR ODIOUS) (Adj.)

  

 

 Meaning- very bad or unpleasant or Worthy of disgust or hatred.

Synonym- OBNOXIOUS, ABHORRENT

Uses- 

  • It was one of the most odious crimes of recent history.
  • I had the abominable habit of chewing my fingernails in the public.
  • Abominable, unnatural as Rahul’s conduct to his unhappy and innocent son undoubtedly was, there is no reason to suppose that he ever regretted it.
  • Life once conceived, must be protected with the utmost care; abortion and infanticide are abominable crimes.
  • Child trafficking an abominable crime: Amitabh Bachchan.

ABROGATE (Verb)

 

 

Meaning- 1) to end or cancel (something) in a formal and official way.

2) to fail to do what is required by (something such as responsibility).

Mnemonic trick- The word abrogate contains word gate. Gate sounds similar to hate. If we hate something we abrogate or cancel it.  Bad should be given up. Therefore, abrogate means to end or cancel (something) in a formal and official way.

Synonym- RESCIND, ANNUL, ABOLISH, QUASH, RETRACT, REVOKE

Uses-

  • The company’ s directors are accused of abrogating their responsibilities.
  • You are not allowed to abrogate old treaties that are unfair to you.
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